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be sufficient to show to what kind of persuaded no advantage would result abuse and licentiousness the press of to Ireland from its adoption. He was Ireland was perverted.

persuaded that such a measure would “ He would now advert to one by no means operate beneficially on other topic which he conceived ought the existing state of things in that to be considered as a part of the country. If he were asked to declare causes which had tended to place Ire- from what measure he imagined the land in her present condition. He greatest benefit to Ireland would acalluded to the actual state of the elec- crue, he would say, without hesitative franchises. The manner in which tion, that any measure calculated to they were exercised by the Catholic induce, or if that were not sufficient, freeholders was most injurious. It to compel those individuals to reside was far from his intention to urge any in Ireland, who now spent the money thing against the wisdom or policy of which they derived from that country the act of 1793, by which these fran- elsewhere, would be more immediatechises were extended to the Catholics. ly felt in its advantageous operation He did not think that either the dan- than anyother proposition which could gers or the benefits which were pre- be made by any party. He firmly dicted at that period had been reali- believed that Ireland was precisely in zed; but at the same time he did not that state in which the benefits of rethink that it had inyested the Catho- sidence on the part of her gentry would lic democracy with any substantial be most sensibly felt. The opinion of power or advantage. The real advan. the lower orders of the Irish, with retage which had been derived was not spect to their government, was too by those who possessed the freehold, loose and undefined. It was a machine but those who possessed the freehold. too large for their comprehension; it

In registering the freehold pro- was a machine too distant for effective perty, he had been told the greatest operation, and the influence of resiabuses existed. Perjury was frequente dent landlords would do more to prely committed. Leases were made out vent disturbances, and to effect all the merely for the occasion, and persons legitimate objects of a wise governswore to the possession of property ment, than could be accomplished in which they never saw. If it were any other manner whatever. In supasked, why such persons were not port of this opinion he would appeal proceeded against, the answer would to all those who had been in those be, that if they were committed, they parts of Ireland in which the gentry would be immediately bailed out, and did reside, to testify the inestimable never found afterwards. He certainly advantages which arose from the practhought, therefore, that the manner tice. in which the elective franchise was now “ The right hon. baronet had someexercised, required some legislative re- what misunderstood his sentiments on gulation.

the subject of education in Ireland. “ With respect to Catholic eman. He had never asserted that from a cipation, he would not say more more general system of education any than that the opinions which he had immediate advantages were to be exformerly entertained and expressed on pected. He had never asserted that that subject, had been confirmed by education was the only way by which every observation which he had sioce the people of Ireland could be renderbeen enabled to make, and that he was ed tranquil and industrious. He had

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always said that the only mode by lity, gentry, and clergy of England. which that people, as well as any other The subject of these petitions was dispeople, could be rendered industrious, cussed at great length, but without any was, by adopting such measures as introduction of new arguments ; 80 would make it their interest to be so, that were we to enter into any narraBut while he would encourage all those tive of the debates, we should only be measures which were calculated to repeating what we have already given produce so excellent an effect on the in several of our preceding volumes. existing generation, he would not ne- It is sufficient to mention, that the glect to afford that general instruction general question was again lost by a from which so much future good was large majority in both Houses, "alto be justly anticipated. It was the though, in the House of Commons, peculiar duty of a government that Lord Castlereagh still separated him felt the inconveniences that arose from self, in regard to this great question, the ignorance of the present genera. from the great body of ministers, and tion, to sow the seeds of knowledge in was found once more in the minority. the generation that was to succeed. Very near the close of the session, Sir It was, because he felt strongly the John Coxe Hippesley brought up the many excellent qualities of the Irish report of the committee appointed in character; it was, because he saw the preceding session to enquire into even in the midst of the extravagancies the customs of foreign nations, in reand errors which were to be deplored, gard to the privileges allowed to bo. qualities of the highest description- dies of their subjects professing a relicapacity for great exertion, and apti- gious persuasion different from that of tude for great virtue--that he enter the majority. The documents brought tained on this subject an anxiety which forward on this occasion presented, it he could not describe. The attach- must be allowed, a very pleasing specment to that country, which the many tacle of the liberal manner in which, excellent qualities of its inhabitants throughout Germany, the members of had created in him, would long survive the Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformany political connexion that he mighted churches mutually extend to each have with it.

other a free share in all the honours The full abstract which we have and privileges of the states in which given of these speeches, will entirely they severally compose the majority. preclude the necessity of any com- Mr Canning, too, who had lately rementary from us on the subjects dis- turned from the continent, stated to the cussed in them. Intimately connect. House many pleasing anecdotes, illused with them is the great question of trative of the good understanding of Catholic emancipation, which was this which the catholics and protestants in yearagain brought before both Houses the south of France, (more particularof Parliament, by the usual method of ly of the department of the Gironde,) petitions. One petition from the Ca- were now living among each other. tholics of Dublin, was presented to The manly manner in which this great the Lower House by Sir Henry Par. statesman expressed his own leaning nell ; another, from a still more exten- towards the cause of his catholic fels sive portion of the same body, by Mr low subjects, awoke, in the usual cham. Grattan. Mr William Elliot present. pions of that cause, the expectation ed, about the same time, a petition that, through his influence, it might in signed by almost all the Catholic nobi. the next session of parliament be investigated at still greater length, and the protestant people of Britain, the with more happy success. In the continued prejudices against their ca. meantime it is not to be denied, that, tholic brethren were gradually but in general, throughout the body of distinctly giving way.

CHAPTER V.

Report of the Committees on the Mendicity and Vagrancy, and on the Police

of the Metropolis.-State of Manners as illustrated in the Evidence led before these Committees.

Anong the most interesting sub- of the inhabitants of the British mejects which came this year under the tropolis. attention of the House of Commons, From the evidence of a great num. were those investigated in the two se- ber of intelligent magistrates, clergyveral committees, on the mendicity and men, and church-wardens, who, in virragrancy, and on the police of the me- tue of their offices, had seen and known tropolis. A committee on the former much of the indigent in their respec. of these subjects had sat during a con- tive neighbourhoods, it was very clearsiderable part of the last session, un- ly proved, that of that immense numder the direction of Mr Rose, and ber of mendicants wherewith the streets this year the same branch of enquiry of the metropolis are at all times in. was conducted with equal diligence. fested, a very small proportion indeed, The committee on the police, where consists of persons reduced by calaMr Bennet presided, were no less in- mity to the last state of penury, or defatigable, and, although in neither willing to escape from it by the ho. case did any immediate legislative enact. nest labour of their hands. The begments ensue, yet the body of informa. gars in London (consisting on the tion collected was quite sufficient to most moderate computation of from shew the propriety, or rather the ne- 15 to 20,000 persons) are in general, cessity, of some such measures. To according to this testimony, of the what conclusion the legislature may most abandoned character, indolent, come after a more ample consider- vicious, profligate, who prefer their ation both of evils and of remedies, own degraded life to every other, bewe cannot pretend to guess ; but the cause they consider it as a more lucraminutes of the evidence led before the tive, lazy, and luxurious one than they committees, contain many very curious could otherwise easily command. These facts, well worthy in the meantime of voluntary outcasts are not, however, being recorded, were it only by reason without some laws of society and

soof the light which they throw upon cial compact among themselves. The the manners of several numerous classes streets of the metropolis are portion, ed out in fragments to the different last to the West Indies with a fore members of the community, who ex- tune of 15001. change their stations for the sake of Gains so easily won are not often, varying the deception, or dispose of however, so carefully preserved. The them for money as if they were free mode of living common amongst the holds. The profits of their base traffic mendicants, presents the strangest mix. are such as to furnish no mean temp- ture of misery and extravagance that tation to the lowest of the people. can well be imagined, Persons who The reward of ordinary labour is des. spend the whole day in the cold, pised by them, because it would ap- smarting under voluntary wounds, and pear they are accustomed to make five, shivering from voluntary nakedness, six, ten, or twelve shillings a-day, and are sure to prepare themselves for these yet not suppose themselves possessed of hardships by “ a breakfast of beaf. any extraordinary good fortune. The steaks and oyster sauce," and a“ glass system of lies and tricks, and feigned or two of heated spirits." One man diseases, both bodily and mental, by confesses, that “ he never takes the which these persons practise so power trouble to pocket copper, but always fully upon the minds of the respect. spends that as it comes in the giác able inhabitants, opens up a view of shop.” In the evening after their lawickedness not more novel than dis- bours are concluded, the beggars as. gusting. Parents let out their chil- semble in public houses, some of these dren for hire, to be carried about in of no mean appearance, chiefly or exthe arms of others, for the purpose of clusively frequented by persons of their exciting compassion; *others send forth profession. À parish officer of Whitechildren more advanced in growth to chapel mentions, that he has been prebeg by themselves, and in order to en. sent at the banquets with which they hance the violence of their importuni- regale themselves in a house in that ties, punish them at night with stripes parish known by the name of the Begand hunger, if they dare to return gar's Opera. Hams and beef are their without the two or three shillings usual fare ; its inmates never touch which it is supposed possible for them broken victuals, but throw away whatto gain during the day. Old women ever is given them, or sell it to the hold schools in the night to teach these dealers in dogs-meat. On great occayoung creatures the arts of cursing and sions their table is graced by a goose reviling, the language of the streets." roasted with sausages, which in their The more skilful proficients in this cant is called “ an alderman hung in shameful trade earn profits which it chains ;" and the evening uniformly is difficult for us to believe possible; closes in a scene of drunkenness and upone violent man, a lame sailor, possess- roar. Some of the mendicants are proed of a pension from Greenwich Hos- vided with comfortable lodgings, but pital, whose stationis St Paul's Church, the greater part are less careful as to yard, confessed that thiriy shillings a. this, than as to their diet. Their geneday are with him po unusual gain. And ral fashion is to sleep in houses set apart it is asserted that another artful beg- for their use, where a bundle of straw gar, a Negro, who had for many years is retained for a penny by the night. infested Finsbury Square, retired at In these habitations they are crowded

16 and

“I have seen woman sit with twins for' ten years,” said one witness, they never excceded the same age."

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