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his mind so strong a sense of the importance of obedience to the divine will, of the value of the reward promised to virtue, and the terrors of the punishment denounced against crimes, as may overbear all the tempatations which temporal hope or fear can bring in his way, and enable him to bid equal defiance to joy and sorrow, to turn away at one time from the allurements of ambition, and push forward at another against the threats of calamity.

Rambler, vol. 1, p. 38.

A man who has once settled his religious opinions, does not love to have the tranquillity of his conviction disturbed.

Western Islands, p. 230.

Men may differ from each other in many religious opinions, yet all may retain the essentials of Christianity; men may sometimes eagerly dispute, and yet not differ much from one another. The rigorous persecutors of error should therefore enlighten their zeal with knowledge, and temper their orthodoxy with charity; that charity without which, orthodoxy is vain; that charity "that thinketh no evil," but " hopeth all things, and endureth all things.".

Life of Sir T. Browne, p. 248.


Poverty is an evil always in our view; an evil complicated with so many circumstances of uneasiness and vexation, that every man is studious to avoid it. Some degree of riches, therefore, is required, that we may be exempt from the gripe of necessity. When this purpose is attained, we naturally wish for more, that the evil

which is regarded with so much horror, may be yet at a greater distance from us; as he that has at once felt, or dreaded the paw of a savage, will not be at rest, till they are parted by some barrier, which may take away all possibility of a

second attack.

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Whoever shall look heedfully upon those who are eminent for their riches, will not think their condition such as that he should hazard his quiet, and much less his virtue, to obtain it; for all that great wealth generally gives above a moderate fortune, is more room for the freaks of caprice, and more privilege for ignorance and vice; a quicker succession of flatteries, and a larger circle of voluptuousness.

Ibid. vol. 1, p. 232. ́

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There is one reason seldom remarked, which makes riches less desirable. Too much wealth is generally the occasion of poverty. He whom the wantonness of abundance has once softened, easily sinks into neglect of his affairs; and he that thinks he can afford to be negligent, is not far from being poor. He will soon be involved in perplexities, which his inexperience will render insurmountable; he will fly for help to those whose interest it is that he should be more distressed; and will be, at last, torn to pieces by the vultures that always hover over our fortunes in decay. Ibid. p. 233.

Wealth is nothing in itself; it is not useful but when it departs from us: its value is found only in that which it can purchase, which if we suppose it put to its best use, seems not much to


deserve the desire or envy of a wise man. It is certain, that, with regard to corporal enjoyment money can neither open new avenues to pleasure, nor block up the passages of anguish. Disease and infirmity still continue to torture and enfeeble, perhaps exasperated: by luxury, or promoted by softness.

Ibid. vol. 2, p. 29.

With regard to the mind, it has rarely been observed, that wealth contributes much to quicken the discernment, enlarge the capacity, or elevate the imagination; but may, by hiring flattery, or laying diligence asleep, confirm error, or harden stupidity. Wealth cannot confer greatness; for nothing can make that great, which the decree of nature has ordained to be little. The bramble may be placed in a hot-bed, but can never become an oak.-Even royalty itself is not able to give that. dignity, which it happens not to find, but oppresses feeble minds, though, it may elevate the strong. The world has been governed in the name of kings, whose existence has scarcely been per ceived, by any real effects,, beyond. their own palaces. When,, therefore, the desire of wealth is taking hold of the heart, let us look round and see how it operates upon those whose industry or fortune has obtained it. When we find them oppressed with their own abundance, luxurious. without pleasure, idle without ease, impatient and querulous in themselves, and despised or hated by the rest of mankind, we shall soon be convinced, that if the real wants of our condition are satisfied, there remains little to be sought with solicitude, or desired with eagerness.

Ibid. p. 30.

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Though riches often prompt extravagant hopes and fallacious appearances, there are purposes to which a wise man may be delighted to apply them. They may, by a rational distribution to those who want them, ease the pains of helpless disease, still the throbs of restless anxiety, relieve innocence from oppression, and raise imbecility to cheerfulness and vigour. This they will enable a man to perform; and this will afford the only happiness ordained for our present state, the consequence of divine favour, and the hope of future rewards.

Rambler, vol. 3, P. 94.

It is observed of gold, by an old epigrammatist, *that to have it, is to be in fear, and to want it, to be in sorrow.'

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Ibid. p. 155.

Every man is rich or poor, according to the proportion between his desires and enjoyments. Any enlargement of riches is therefore equally destructive to happiness with the diminution of possession; and he that teaches another to long for what he shall never obtain, is no less an enemy to his quiet, than if he had robbed him of part of his patrimony.

Ibid. vol. 4, p. 17.

Whosoever rises above those who once pleased themselves with equality, will have many malevolent gazers at his eminence. To gain sooner than others that which all pursue with the same ardour, and to which all imagine themselves entitled, will for ever be a crime. When those who started with us in the race of life, leave us so far behind that we have little hope to overtake them, we revenge our disappointment by remarks on the arts


of supplantation by which they gained the advantage, or on the folly and arrogance with which they possess it; of them whose rise we could not hinder, we solace ourselves by prognosticating the fall. Riches, therefore, perhaps do not so often produce crimes as incite accusers. Ibid. p. 68.

It must, however, be confessed, that as all sudden changes are dangerous, a quick transition from poverty to abundance can seldom be made with safety. He that has long lived within sight of pleasures which he could not reach, will need more than common moderation not to lose his reason in unbounded riot, when they are first put into his power.

Ibid. p. 69.

Of riches, as of every thing else, the hope is more than the enjoyment. Whilst we consider them as the means to be used at some future time, for the attainment of felicity, we press on our pursuit ardently and vigorously, and that ardour secures us from weariness of ourselves; but no sooner do we sit down to enjoy our acquisitions, than we find them insufficient to fill up the vacuities of life.

İdler, vol. 2, p. 115.

It is surely very narrow policy that supposes money to be the chief good.

Life of Milton.

It is not hard to discover that riches always procure protection for themselves; that they dażzle the eyes of enquiry, divert the celerity of pursuit, or appease the ferocity of vengeance When


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