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No. 1257.- July 4, 1868.
CONTENTS. 1. THE EARTH A MAGNET, . .
. . Cornhill Magazine, .. 2. KIRK'S CHARLES THE BOLD, . . . . . Saturday Review, . 3. KILLING KINGS, . . . . . . . . Saturday Review, . 4. A GROUP OF VAGABONDS, . ..
. . Cornhill Magazine, .. 5. PHINEAS FINN. PART IX. . . . . . . . . St. Paul's, 6. GRACE OWEN'S ENGAGEMENT. PART I. .
Blackwood's Magazine, 7. ACQUITTAL OF PRESIDENT JOHNSON, . . . . . Examiner, . . . 8. KING THEODORE'S LESSON,. .
. . Examiner, . . .
POETRY. THE RIVER,
2 THE LIFE OF A LEAF, . .. How DO THE HORSES COME ROUND AT
THE WORLD. - DEATH THE CORNER, .
2 O FY HEN GYMRAEG! . . THEODORE WINTHROP,
16 | DEAP-SEA SOUNDINGS, . . THRIFT,.
16 SPRING VIOLETS, . . ROADSIDE THEATRES,
SHORT ARTICLES. INTERNATIONAL WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, 2 Kit CARSON, . . LEIGH HUNT,
26 | TUNNELLING THE CHANNEL, . THE JEWS IN GERMANY, .
. 41 | HARRIET LIVERMORE,
NEW BOOKS. THE EARTHLY PARADISE: A POEM. By WILLIAM MORRIS, Author of The Life and Death
of Jason. Boston: Roberts Brothers. THE GOSPEL IN THE TREES: With Pulpit Opinions on Common Things. By ALEXANDER CLARK. Philadelphia : J. W. Daughaday & Co.
JUST PUBLISHED AT THIS OFFICE :
PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION AT THIS OFFICE:
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. FOR EIGHT DOLLARA, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year, nor where we have to pay commission for forwarding the money.
Price of the First Series, in Cloth, 36 volumes, 90 dollars.
" The Complete Work,
240 “ Any Volume Bound, 8 dollars; Unbound, 2 dollars. The sets, or volumes, will be sent at the expense of the publishers.
PREMIUMS FOR CLUBS. For 6 new subscribers (840.), a sixth copy; or a set of HORNE'S INTRODUCTION TO THE BIBLE, unabridged, in 4 large volumes, cloth, price $10; or any 6 of the back volumes of the LIVING AGE, in numbers, price $10.
From Tinsley's Magazine.
With whipping and thrashing,
With crowding and smashing,
With pressing and stirring, . FROM its hidden source secure,
With lifting and spurring, In the waste of wold and moor,
With pulling and striving, Where the purple heather glows,
'With pushing and driving, Where the bee its harvest knows;
With kicking and sporting, Dancing down mid flowers and moss,
With neighing and snorting, Dashing in the sudden · foss,'
With frisking and whisking, Darkling in the rocky pool,
With racing and chasing, Glimmering mid the rushes cool,
With straining and gaining, Through sun and shade, through dusk and
With longing and thronging, shiver,
With plunging and lunging, Onward glides the little river.
With fretting and sweating,
With bustling, and hustling, and justling, Through the meadows broad and fair,
With surging, and urging, and scourging, Under beech-tree arches rare;
With rushing, and brushing, and crushing, Through deep woodlands green and shady,
With scattering, and pattering, and clatterPast gray halls of lord and lady;'
ing, Where white lilies lie serenely,
With hurrying, and scurrying, and flurrying, And great swans come floating queenly;
and worrying, Where brown wings of coot and hern
With sliding, and gliding, and riding, and stridGlance from nests amid the fern; Where tall willows bend and quiver, With crying, and flying, and shying, and plying, Onward rolls the broad bright river.
With tying, and vying, and trying, and hieing !
Till rapidly spinning, Past great towns, whose roar and riot
The ranks quickly thinning, Start the waters from their quiet;
The crowd is beginning Past wharves with barges heavy-laden,
To see which is winning :Bright-sailed boats with youth and maiden; Is.
Some faces grow brighter —and some grow forThundering paddles flashing back
lorner: Mimic billows from their track,
And that's how the horses come round at The Bearing all, for work or play,
Corner ! Hurrying on, through night and day,
Fun. Tribute waters to deliver, Seaward rolls the mighty river.
8. K. P.
The second reading of Mr. Ewart's Bill inHow do the horses come round at The Corner ? troducing the metric system was carried on WedWhen eyes are all straining
nesday by a vote of 217 to 65, an extraordinarily To see which is gaining,
heavy vote, considering that the majority of the And far-distant humming
House know no more about the metric system Grows louder and clearer,- Grows stronger and than about the differential calculus. Mr. Ewart nearer.
proposes that after a certain number of years, " They're off !” “ They are coming!” the French measures shall be introduced bodily, “ Who leads ? ” “ Black and red !”_"No! nomenclatures and all. He was opposed by Mr. Green, by a head!”
Beresford Hope on somewhat novel ground. He « The Earl !" "No, the Lady!”-“ Typhæus argued, of course, against the expediency of a looks shady!"
change which would greatly embarrass the igno“ Orion ! Orion, — To live or to die on!” rant and the poor, but also read a letter from “ Twenty pounds to a crown - On the little Blue Sir John Herschel, asserting that the British Gown."
standards of measure and weight are, on the “ I'll venture my whole in - That colt by Tom whole, more scientific than the French. The Bowline !"
English foot is within 1,000th part of an abso“ Paul Jones!” “ Rosicrucian!” lute geometrical foot; our English ounce is ex“ Green Sleeve!” “ Restitution !" actly 1,000th part the weight of a geometrical “ Le Sarrazin !” “Pace!"
cubic foot of distilled water at a temperature of “ It's Mercury's race!”
720; and our half-pint is precisely ten ounces of Then on they come lashing, and slashing, and water. The benefit of international weights and
measures is very small, and we altogether object Their colours all flashing like lightning-gleams to forcible changes of the kind, unless their utilgashing
ity, as in the matter of decimal coinage, is very The darkness, where, clashing, the thunder is great indeed. crashing !
From The Cornhill Magazine. I west. No wonder, therefore, that we went THE EARTH A MAGNET.
| astray when we followed a guide so unTHERE is a very prevalent but erroneous trustworthy. opinion that the magnetic needle points to The peculiarity that the magnetic needle the north. We remember well how we dis- does not, in general, point to the north, is covered in our boyhood that the needle the first of a series of peculiarities which we does not point to the north, for the dis- now propose briefly to describe. The ircovery was impressed upon us in a very regularity is called by sailors the needle's unpleasant manner. We had purchased variation, but the term more commonly used a pocket compass, and were very anx- by scientific men is the declination of the ious — not, indeed, to test the instru- needle. It was probably discovered a long ment, since we placed implicit reliance time ago, for 800 years before our era the upon its indications — but to make use of it Chinese applied the magnet's directive force as a guide across unknown regions. Not to guide them in journeying over the great many miles from where we lived lay Cob- Asiatic plains; and they must soon have deham Wood, no very extensive forest cer- tected so marked a peculiarity. Instead of tainly, but large enough to lose oneself in. a ship's compass they made use of a magThither, accordingly, we proceeded with netic car, on the front of which a floating three schoolfellows. When we had lost needle carried a small figure whose outourselves, we gleefully called the compass stretched arm pointed southwards. We into action, and made from the wood in a have no record, however, of their discovery direction which we supposed would lead us of the declination, and know only that they home. We travelled on with full confidence were acquainted with it in the twelfth cenin our pocket guide; at each turning we tury. The declination was discovered, inconsulted it in an artistic manner, care-dependently, by European observers in the fully poising it and waiting till its vibrations thirteenth century. ceased. But when we had travelled some As we travel from place to place the dectwo or three miles without seeing any house lination of the needle is found to vary : or road that we recognized, matters as-Christopher Columbus was the first to desumed a less cheerful aspect. We were un-tect this. He discovered it on the 13th of willing to compromise our dignity as “ex- September, 1492, during his first voyage, plorers" by asking the way — a proceeding and when he was six hundred miles from which no precedent in the history of our fa-Ferro, the most westerly of the Canary Islvourite travellers allowed us to think of. ands. He found that the declination, But evening came on, and with it a summer which was towards the east in Europe, passed thunder-storm; we were getting thoroughly to the west, and increased continually as he tired out, and the juvabit olim meminisse travelled westwards. with which we had been comforting our-! But here we see the first trace of a yet selves began to lose its force. When at more singular peculiarity. We have said length we yielded, we learned that we had that at present the declination is towards gone many miles out of our road, and we the west in Europe. In Columbus' time it did not reach home till several hours after was towards the east. Thus we learn that dark. How it fared with our schoolfellows the declination varies with the progress of we know not, but a result overtook our-time, as well as with change of place. selves personally, for which there is no The Genius of modern science is a weighprecedent, so far as we are aware, in the ing and a measuring one. Men are not satrecords of exploring expeditions. Also the isfied now-a-days with knowing that a peoffending compass was confiscated by just-culiarity exists; they seek to determine its ly indignant parents, so that for a long extent, how far it is variable — whether while the cause of our troubles was a mys- from time to time or from place to place, tery to us. We now know that instead of and so on. Now the results of such inquipointing due north the compass pointed ries applied to the magnetic declination have more than 200 towards the west, or nearly proved exceedingly interesting. to the quarter called by sailors north-north- We find first, that the world inay be di
vided into two unequal portions, over one to the south. In fact, it was imagined that of which the needle has a westerly, and over the motion of the needle would resemble the other an easterly, declination. Along that of the hands of a watch, only in a rethe boundary line, of course, the needle versed direction. But before long obserpoints due north. England is situated in vant men detected a gradual diminution in the region of westerly magnets. This re- the needle's westerly motion. Arago, the gion includes all Europe, except the north- distinguished French astronomer and physeastern parts of Russia; Turkey, Arabia, icist, was the first (we believe) to point and the whole of Africa; the greater part out that “the progressive movement of the of the Indian Ocean, and the western parts magnetic needle towards the west appeared of Australia ; nearly the whole of the At- to have become continually slower of late lantic Ocean ; Greenland, the eastern parts years” (he wrote in 1814), “which seemed of Canada, and a small slice from the north- to indicate that after some little time longer eastern part of Brazil. All these form one it might become retrograde.” Three years region of westerly declination; but singu- later, namely on the 10th of February, 1817, larly enough, there lies in the very heart of Arago asserted definitively that the retrothe remaining and larger region of 'easterly grade movement of the magnetic needle had magnets, an oval space of a contrary char- commenced to be perceptible. Colonel acter. This space includes the Japanese Beaufoy at first oppugned Arago's concluIslands, Manchouria, and the eastern parts sion, for he found from observations made of China. It is very noteworthy also, that in London, during the years 1817-1819, that in the westerly region the declination is the westerly motion still continued. But much greater than the easterly. Over the he had omitted to take notice of one very whole of Asia, for instance, the needle points simple fact, viz., that London and Paris are almost due north. On the contrary, in the two different places. A few years later and north of Greenland and of Baffin's Bay, the the retrograde motion became perceptible magnetic needle points due west, while still at London also, and it has now been estabfurther to the north (a little westerly) we lished by the observations of forty years. find the needle pointing with its north end |1t appears from a careful comparison of directly towards the south.
Beaufoy's observations that the needle In the presence of these peculiarities it reached the limit of its western digression would be pleasant to speculate. We might (at Greenwich) in March, 1819, at which imagine the existence of powerfully mag- time the declination was very nearly 25o. netic veins in the earth's solid mass, coercing In Paris, on the contrary, the needle had the magnetic needle from a full obedience to reached its greatest western digression the true polar summons. Or the compara- (about 22 1-2°) in 1814. It is rather singular tive effects of oceans and of continents that although at Paris the retrograde momight be called into play. But unfortunately tion thus presented itself five years earlier for all this we have to reconcile views founded than in London, the needle pointed due on fixed relations presented by the earth, north at Paris six years later than in Lonwith the process of change indicated above. don, viz., in 1663. Perhaps the greater Let us consider the declination in England amplitude of the needle's London digres
sion may explain this peculiarity. In the fifteenth century there was an “It was already sufficiently difficult,” easterly declination. This gradually dimin- says Arago, “to imagine what could be the ished, so that in about the year 1657 the kind of change in the constitution of the needle pointed due north. After this the globe, which could act during one hundred needle pointed towards the west, and con- and fitty-three years in gradually transfertinually more and more, so that scientific ing the direction of the magnetic needle men, having had experience only of a con- from due north to 23° west of north. We tinual shifting of the needle in one direc- see that it is now necessary to explain, tion, began to form the opinion that this moreover, bow it has happened that this change would continue, so that the needle gradual change has ceased, and has given would pass, through north-west and west, place to a return towards the preceding state of the globe.” “How is it,” he pertinently greatest westerly excursion at eleven, as at asks, “ that the directive action of the globe, starting. which clearly must result from the action of Of course, these excursions take place molecules of which the globe is composed, on either side of the mean position of the can be thus variable, while the number, po- needle, and as the excursions are small, sition, and temperature of these molecules, never exceeding the fifth part of a degree, and, as far as we know, all their other phys- while the mean position of the needle lies ical properties, remain constant ? ”
some 20° to the west of north, it is clear But we have considered only a single re- that the excursions are only nominally eastgion of the earth's surface. Arago's opin- crn and western, the needle pointing, ion will seem still more just when we exam-throughout, far to the west. ine the change which has taken place in Now if we remember that the north end what we may term the “magnetic aspect” of the needle is that farthest from the sun, of the whole globe. The line which sepa- it will be easy to trace in M. Arago's results rates the region of westerly magnets from a sort of effort on the part of the needle to the region of easterly magnets, now runs, turn towards the sun, -not merely when as we have said, across Canada and eastern that luminary is above the horizon, but durBrazil in one hemisphere, and across Rus- ing his nocturnal path also. sia, Asiatic Turkey, the Indian Ocean, and We are prepared, therefore, to expect West Australia in the other; besides having that a variation having an annual period an outlying oval to the east of the Asiatic shall appear, on a close observation of our Continent. Now these lines have swept suspended needle. Such a variation has round a part of the globe's circuit in a most been long since recognized. It is found singular manner since 1600. They have that in the summer of both hemispheres, the varied alike in direction and complexity. daily variation is exaggerated, while in winThe Siberian oval, now distinct, was, in ter it is diminished. 1787, merely a loop of the eastern line of But besides the divergence of a magnetno declination. The oval appears now to ized needle from the north pole, there is a be continually diminishing, and will one day divergence from the horizontal position, probably disappear.
which must now claim our attention. If a We find here presented to us a phenome-non-magnetic needle be carefully suspended non as mysterious, as astonishing, and as so as to rest horizontally, and be then magworthy of careful study as any embraced in netized, it will be found no longer to prethe wide domains of science. But other serve that position. The northern end dips peculiarities await our notice.
very sensibly. This happens in our hemisIf a magnetic needle of suitable length be phere. In the southern it is the southern carefully poised on a fine point, or, better, end which dips. It is clear, therefore, that be suspended from a silk thread without if we travel from one hemisphere to the torsion, it will be found to exhibit each day other we must find the northern dip of the two small but clearly perceptible oscilla- needle gradually diminishing till at some tions. M. Arago, from a careful series of point near the equator the needle is horiobservations, deduced the following re-zontal, and as we pass thence to southern sults :
regions a gradually increasing southern inAt about eleven at night, the north end clination is presented. This has been found of the needle begins to move from west to to be the case, and the position of the line east, and having reached its greatest east- along which there is no inclination (called erly excursion at about a quarter-past eight the magnetic equator) has been traced in the morning, returns towards the west to around the globe. It is not coincident with attain its greatest westerly excursion at a | the earth's equator, but crosses that circle quarter past one. It then moves again to at an angle of twelve degrees, passing from the east, and having reached its greatest north to south of the equator in long. 3o easterly excursion at balf-past eight in the west of Greenwich, and from south to north evening, returns to the west, and attains its in long. 187° east of Greenwich. The form