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DR. LIVINGSTONE TO THE EDITOR OF |first eighty miles or so. We could of course see "GOOD WORDS."
it- a great green mass of foliage, with an ocLAKE Nyassa, August 28, 1866. casional red rock jutting out. The confluence MY DEAR DR. MACLEOD, – The hint you of the Loendi and Rovuma is about 150 miles from threw out in our last interview about the the sea. The sources of both lie near each other, Hermannsburg missionaries has been turned and both have the same character - sandy botover in my mind again and again in the weary toms, rapid currents, and many rocky islands. treadmill trudge of some 300 miles from the We went along the Rovuma for some distance coast to this. Let me try and give you some above the confluence, and then, always ascendidea of the country passed over, and then, if Iing, came first to an undulating and then to a succeed, you will be able to form a judgment in mountainous country. Although the country the matter.
was still covered with open forest, we could get From the coast, at a nice little land-locked har- a view of the distant mountains from the crests bour called Pemba, at the bottom of Mikindany of the waves into which the region has been bay, which you may look for twenty-five miles worn or upheaved. About 130 miles from this north of the river Rovuma, the country is a we entered a well-watered, fruitful, but depopugradual slope, up to within forty or fifty miles lated district. A dearth of food from the conof this. The land around the harbour rises at fluence to that point gave us rather hard lines, once to 150 or 200 feet, and is prettily wooded. and we had to push on as fast as we could to There are six villages of half-caste Arabs dotted reach the land of plenty before us. With four round the harbour, the circumference of which of my companions, I succeeded in reaching the is over three miles. The entrance is narrow but inhabited part on the morning of the eighth day. deep, and the southern part affords anchorage In the course of the sixth day's march I counted for ships of any size. When we leave this, and fifteen running burns, some ten yards wide and proceed away southwards towards the Rovuma, thigh deep, though it was the dry season. We we travel in a wady — not very like your Wady were then between 2,000 and 3,000 feet above
Toora or Mousa, the remembrance of which the level of the sea, and found it cold enough makes the eyes blink, but still a genuine ortho- for flannels. The most of this depopulated tract dox wady, having the appearance of a dry shows evidence of a former prosperity. The river's bed. This has thickly wooded banks and ridges, like our potatoe drills, on which the peobraes, sloping up 100 or 150 feet on each side, ple plant dourra, maize, beans, and cassava, to and the path somewhat like a sheep-walk, winds allow the superflous rains to run off, were everyalong the bottom among grass which often tow-where visible. Calcined 'clay pipes, used in ers over one's head, and has stalks as thick as smelting furnaces, are so abundant that it is quills. We are not blinded, it is true, by the clear the people worked extensively in iron. The glare from sand and stones, but have often to watershed between the coast and lake is about keep the eyes half shut for fear of the spikelets forty miles from the latter, and is about 3,400 of grass. The only water is to be found in or 4,000 feet of altitude. Where I write is wells. The barometer showed a gradual ascent, 1,200 feet, and not so cold as on the heights. and in time we got on a plateau cut up in vari- On the seaboard we have low Arab halfous directions by these smothering wadys. On castes; but seven miles inland, we come to the the heights and their slopes we have generally Makonde, who make clearances in the forest and dense forests — the trees not so large as they are cultivate grain pretty largely. Food is very thickly planted, and horribly intertwined with cheap, and a village may be found every two or climbing plants. I call them plants, but they three miles. At certain seasons they dig gumare in fact trees run mad in the struggle for ex- copal for sale. We found them very civil, but istence : some are as thick as a man-of-war's they are said not to be always so; and on a forhawsers and as round; others are flat like mer occasion they began to shoot at us, with arsword scabbards; and along the centre of the rows and balls, without the smallest provocation. flat on each side are set groups of straight strong Four of the balls went through the boat's sail thorns; others have hooked thorns like our sweet above our heads. Beyond the Makonde we come briar, but magnified, and meaning mischief. to the Matambwe, who differ little but in dialect These and other entanglers give one the idea and the markings on their faces and bodies. that Africa has got a pretty fair share of the Still further inland, we meet the Makoa, easily curse — “ Thorns and briars," &c. Paths had known by marks like a half-moon on the fore been made by the people, who are named Ma- head. And then we have Waiau or Waiyau konde, but they were much too low for elsewhere called Ajawa — and the people of the camels and too narrow for buffaloes. We got Lake Wanyassa, or Manganja. With the excepthem cleared for very reasonable wages; and tion of the last, all may be described as of variwhen we were eighty or ninety miles from the ous shades of brown : some are very light incoast, or away from the damp of the Indian deed. Their heads, especially those of the WaiOcean, the forest became much more open. It yau, are round and compact; foreheads good, was still, however, dense enough to prevent our but small; in the nose, the alæ nasi are always getting more than a mere glimpse to any dis- full; lips moderately thick, but the profile is not tance. The Roruma has the plateau mentioned, at all prognathous, like the West Coast negro; à mile or two distant from each bank, for the height, middle size; bodies and limbs well-shape:i and strong. The women wear the hideous lip- principal slave-merchants at 'Kilwa see very ring, and either file their teeth to points or into little of it, and care less. I refer more largely notches. Each tribe has its own dialect; but to this half-caste class because, though they this causes no difficulty — there are so many who have scarcely any religion, they have abundance understand several.
of bigotry, and they form the main obstacle to Our great difficulty was the dearth of food efforts by Christian missionaries. The Sultan that prevailed over a wide district. We had, of has no power over them. They obey him when course, a share of those petty annoyances which it suits them, and pay no attention to his orders are best forgotten, but which sometimes creep when they are unpalatable. No attempts have into books of travels, till they make one scunner. ever been made, so far as I can learn, by any The most formidable obstacle is the slave trade. Arab of any sort, on the East coast or inland, Every year, swarms of Zanzibar and coast to propagate Mahometanism. This indifference Arabs come up laden with ammunition and cali- is ascribed by some to the probable fact, that co. The usual practice is to go to a Waiyau vil- many Arabian emigrants mixed with the native luge, exhibit their goods, and say, “ These want population before Mahomet appeared, and that slaves.” They are invited to remain where they the present mixed race had too much of the are; and marauling parties, with gunpowder African in them to imbibe the fanaticism of the on tick (I have forgotten the proper word), sally prophet's immediate successors. However it forth to the Manganja villages, and there the may have been, the coast tribes are a most unbowmen never make any stand against firearms. promising people for a missionary to have anyMost of the women and children of the villages thing to do with. From all I can gather, Africa attacked are brought back. The men who es must be christianized from within. The Waiyau cape often perish of starvation, for their stores even are a more likely people to receive the Gosare all consumed by fire, in the mere wanton-pel than any of the littoral tribes, who are ness of wickedness, by the marauders. This is steeped in prejudice and religious pride. the process which depopulated the rich, fertile My estimate of Mataka, the principal chief country we travelled over; and it is that of which of the watershed country, may have been too we saw so much at the hands of the Portuguese favourable. ' You may judge of the effects of in the Shire valley. Each caravan is called a huge baskets of porridge on a famished Scotchsafari, and consists of a dozen or more under man, — none of your thin brose, but such as a lings, with a captain, after whom the safari is spade would stand as upright in as Cleopatra's named. They divide when they reach the Wai- needle does in the mud of the Nile. But some yau country; and parties go to separate villages, of his people had gone without his knowledge, with instructions to return to some point agreed and he had given orders before our arrival to on, when they have each secured a complement send them and their cattle back. I accidentally of slaves. We nearly met seven of these safaris; saw them : they were fifty-four women and chilbut no sooner did they hear that the English dren, about a dozen boys, and some thirty head were coming, than off they scampered across of cattle and calves. He fed us most bountifully country, through pathless forests. One was, all the time we were at his town, which consists however, just entering on the uninhabited part of at least a thousand houses, and took care that referred to, as no news had reached the leader we should travel easily through his country, till we had lighted upon him. On hearing that which extends to the Lakę. I had been making forced marches to procure My opinion is, if these Hermannsburg men fool for my party behind, and that we were all are made of really good stuff, they could make nearly famished, he generously presented an ox their way up, and keep the way open. They and bag of four. I felt no inclination to look a could raise wheat in winter, and all European gift horse in the teeth. The guilt in all this vegetables at the same time ; and the native slaving is so subdivided, that no one, unless he grain when the people do. If they sowed at sees the whole process, can appreciate its enor- other times they would not reap. They would mity; and then, in describing what one has ac- require calico sufficient to keep them a year, tually seen, and carefully keeping a long way and after that, only for the purchase of small within the truth, there is always a natural ap- articles and work. If, however, they are men prehension of being considered guilty of exag- who would sit down in despair when they had geration by the would-be long-headed and no sugar to their tea, and call out sacrifice, sacworldly-wise. The goods are usually advanced rifice, they had better far eat sour krout at on credit by merchants at 'Kilwa (Quilloa) and home, and never quote me as advising them to elsewhere. The riff-raff half-castes who accom- attempt what only good men and true can do. pany the leader of the safari, and sometimes go February 1, 1867. – I am away far beyond with the Waiyau marauders, look on slaves as the Ayars, and, I believe, on the watershed we so many cattle. It is probable that those whom have been in search of. It has taken a long we saw tied to trees, and left to perish because time to work our way up, and I have suffered a the owner was vexed at losing his money by good deal of gnawing hunger; but I have made their being unable to travel further, were the many friends, spoken a few words to some in victims of this class. These half-castes see the whose memory they may stick, and everywhere clue to part of the mortality that takes place on protested against men buying and selling each the way to the coast. But the Waiyau and the other. I send this by some black slave traders, but have some doubts as to its reaching its des-, the house, which is her property. But Linda tination. They refuse to give me more than has fallen in love with a wild young fellow called half a day to write, which induces me to beg Ludovic Valcarm - a thoughtless, selfish, ha you to remember me to the Buchanans and say rum-scarum young man, whom all the devout salaam to your wife.
people in Nurnberg regard as a veritable child Affectionately yours,
of the devil. To save her from the sin of loving DAVID LIVINGSTONE. such a man, Madame Staubach exerts all her
| authority over her niece, and almost forces her
to marry Peter Steinmarc, for whom Linda his From The London Review.
a strong aversion. Now Linda believes in her NINA BALATKA - LINDA TRESSEL.
aunt's theory of the world. “She lived with
her aunt a quiet, industrious, sober life, striving It is now about a year ago that there appeared to be obedient, striving to be religious with the among the murder-and-bigamy novels of the religion of her aunt. She had almost brought libraries a modest, little two-volumed story, herself to believe that it was good for her to be which seemed to claim recognition on other crushed. She had quite brought herself to wish grounds. It had no murder, no bigamy, no to believe it. She had within her heart no de red-haired adulteress; in short, all the puppets sire for open rebellion against domestic authorand stage-play of the vampire school of fiction ity. The world was a dangerous bad world, in - which much atflicts us yet — were wholly dis- which men were dust and women something carded. In their place, we found a severe sim- lower than dust. She would tell herself so very plicity of style, a rare capacity of insight into often, and strive to believe herself when she did character, and the plain, tender story of a Boso. But, for all this, there was a yearning for hemian girl who loved, suffered, and was made something beyond her present life — for some happy. That story was “ Nina Balatka;” and thing that should be of the world, worldly. somehow it separated itself from the vampire When she heard profane music she would long novels, and was talked about, and read, and re- to dance. When she heard the girls laughing in membered. The authorship was attributed to the public gardens, she would long to stay and one or two gentlemen who — with all respect be laugh with them. Pretty ribbons and brightit said — might as appropriately have been sus- coloured silks were a snure to her. When she pected of writing Browning's • Evelyn Hope,” could shake out her curly locks in the retire or Tennyson's “St. Agnes' Eve.” We are not ment of her own little chamber, she liked to aware that “ Nina Balatka ” was ever said to be feel them and to know that they were pretty." the writing of a woman, perhaps because there Borne down by the pious importunity of her was neither immorality nor obstetric informar aunt, Linda promises to become the wife of Peter tion in the book; but the appearance of “ Linda Steinmarc; and on the very night before the Tressel ” almost settles the point. The heroic wedding-day, Ludovic Valcarm makes his way fortitude, the simple frankness, and maidenly into the house and entreats her to fly with him. honour of Nina Balatka were the attributes of She does so. “After to-morrow we will be as a creation which might have arisen in the mind happy as the day is long,' said Ludovic, as he of a male artist; but Linda Tressel seems to us pressed his companion close to his side. Linda to be altogether a woman's woman. But after told herself, but did not tell him, that she never having created such a beautiful character as could be happy again.” Circumstances save Linda Tressel, could a woman have had the her from the ordinary consequences of such a hardness of heart — the coldness of artistic self- step, and she is taken home again by her aunt; possession — to give her a miserable and totally but Linda ever afterwards considers herself a unmerited death? Surely it was a woman who castaway, and avoids, even while she loves, the gave birth to Linda Tressel, and a man who man who was selfish or thoughtless enough to killed her. Leaving these considerations aside, disgrace her in her own eyes. She is again we find “Linda Tressel” to be quite as good a goaded into promising to marry Peter Steinmarc; story as “ Nina Balatka," if there is in it a partly to free herself from her aunt's importuslight trace of self-consciousness which we did nities, and partly because she thinks it to be her not remark in the former work. There is the same duty. But the nearer the wedding-day apsimple style, quaint and studied, the same mi- proaches, the more sullen and silent does she benute knowledge of Nurnberg that we saw exhib-come, until she really becomes half-mad. She ited in the case of Prague; the same tender, runs away, for the last time, to a relative of hers sensitive representations of the moods and feel- in Cologne; and there the long mental tension is ings of a tender and sensitive girl. Linda Tressel relaxed, the torture she has suffered bears its lives with her aunt, Madame Staubach, a well-fruit, and she dies, without a word for Ludovic meaning, rigidly pious and bigoted woman. Valcarm, and with a message of forgiveness to The natural impulses of the girl are kept in the man who had ruined her life, the old towncheck by the austere tuition of the aunt, who clerk. Such is an outline of one of the tenderregards all amusement with the angry eye of a est and truest pictures of life and character we Scotch Calvinist of fifty years ago. They have have met with for many a day. Fiction is not a lodger, Peter Steinmarc, an elderly matter-of- quite dead among us so long as books like fact, commonplace, and avaricious town-clerk, “ Linda Tressel” are written, and read, and who wishes to marry Linda in order to possess treasured.
No. 1259. - July 18, 1868.
CONTENTS. 1. PROJECTED EXPEDITIONS TO THE NORTH POLE - ENGLISH,
GERMAN, FRENCH, . . . . . . . New Monthly Magazine, 181 2. A BOOK ABOUT SPAIN, . . . . . . . London Review, . . 144 3. MASSIMO D'AZEGLIO, . . . . . . . Fortnightly Review, . 147 4. OCCUPATIONS OF A RETIRED LIFE. PART VIII. . . Sunday Magazine, . 153 5. John HOME, THE AUTHOR OF “ DOUGLAS," . . . Dublin Univ. Magazine, 165 6. FRENCH ETIQUETTE, . . . . . . . Belgravia, . . . 175 7. EPISODE IN THE LIFE OF Miss TABITHA TRENOODLE, . Belgravia, . . . 185 8. THE SOBRIETY OF THE UNITED STATES' SENÁTE, : . Economist, . . . 191
POETRY. . HENRY BROUGHAM, ·
· · · · Punch, · · · · 130
SHORT ARTICLES. BOOK OF THE ARTISTS, . . . 152 | SIR. JAMES BROOKE, . . . . 164
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It was a time of tempest and of toil,
An age of battle with all forms of ill,
Ill that brought strength to crush, and fraud to
Delay to sicken, and contempt to chill.
That with so little stir it has come down?
Bias of honour, place, wealth, worldly good,
Drew all away; he would not so be drawn, crown?
Truth and Right's soldier from the first he stood,
"And in the thickest darkness looked for dawn. II. Gaunt, grey, with vice-like roots and gnarled
Count all the triumphs in these fifty years A green leaf here and there on some tough By Right and Truth o'er Wrong and False limb,
- hood won; That once had growth and girth for many trees, of the Good Cause's Paladins and Peers, He stood : no passer-by but noted him,
A faithfuller than HENRY BROUGHAM is none.
XII. Wond'ring to gauge his wreck, and learn his He lived through all those fights, and seemed to age,
grow And hear how broad was once the shade he Tenser and tougher with their wear and tear; cast;
And when the strife was done, and the sun low, With what defiant port he faced the rage
And “age brought honour and the silver Of storms, when weaker growths gave to the hair," blast.
He could look o'er his life, and say, at last, He lived and lived ... from hot youth to hoar “No cause for which I fought now counts a eld,
foe: From flush of leaf to bareness of green bough: No goal I made for but is reached and past; A giant in decay, that still upheld
No ill I aimed a blow at but lies low."
He had the fighter's weak points with the Until at last we heard he was laid low;
strong; Not by the stroke of storm or levin sped, Hot, vehement to rashness, never bland, In still Provençal night, and May moon's glow,
In bates, as loves, too sudden oft and wrong; When none was by, he bowed his ancient head.
| Vain, quick of temper, proud of all he knew, VI.
As who, that knew so much, but might be The peaceful death to close the restless life,
By all he had done, and all he hoped to do
Lifted, his great head's height, above the So should a well-spent being ebb away.
Why note what flaws may be in such a fame? As he lies thus, ... ere earth to earth is given, Freer of flaws than his the fames are few;
We trace back his long life, and find it knit Sum up the gains to which he linked his name; With all wherein our century has striven,
What nobler work did ever statesman do? Stirred, spoken, reared, o'erthrown, fought, wrought, or writ.
The senate purged; charity's stream strained VIII.
pure; The ninety-year-old man was part of all,
Slaves freed; chicane and bigotry put down; Great part of most that's worthiest and best : Knowledge on ignorance gaining, slow but sure; Through that long race the oar he scarce let fall, This was his life's work, is his memory's Scarce through that long day's work paused / crown ! once to rest.