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cow goes. My old missus lives on the course can be more important than that this scal' milk."*

chief officer should be in hearty accord with What could I do? I knew the old rascal the spirit of the legislation which he has to was as poor as a coot. I knew his wife carry out. If he is not, he has immense was childish and had the rheumatism. power to neutralize its provisions. He can

I gave the guinea. Need I observe that choose subordinates who dislike its provisit never came back to my pocket ?

ions, who will be languid in understanding Temper and I always felt very doubtful what they dislike, who will be quick to avail about that yuinea. We thought it extraor- themselves of every loophole to escape from dinary the farmer should make so high a what they dislike. This is precisely what charge for keeping that pickpocket of a cow has happened during President Johnson's a few hours in the pound. However, we rule; and nothing could have been more dared make no inquiries about it, as that fatal to that unity and firmness of purpose might have let out the fact that I had driven so essential to the renovation of the politithe beast there. And you see I didn't cal bond between North and South." And want to get laughed at in my own parish. so conspicuous has this been that all but

In about a year after this, I met Uncle two-thirds of the Senate, and much more Nat Treloob and his cow with a young calf. than two-thirds of the whole Congress,

"Well, Uncle Nat," I observed, “ your think Mr. Johnson a mere traitor, a politicow has got a fine calf. What have you cal criminal, with whom it is impossible to called her ?"

keep any terms. Yet not Mr. Johnson but “Dorcas, which, being interpreted,mean- | the Legislature has to give way. The man eth Tabitha,” said the old sinner, taking off whom Congress trusts, and whom Mr. Johnhis bat, and passing on, with a droll ex- son distrusts, has had to give up the War pression in his pivot eye. And Dorcas Office, and for the rest of the nine months that calf remains to this day. She is an of his reign, Mr. Johnson may do exactly old calf now; in fact, she isn't a calf at all, what he pleases, so long as he does not she is an elderly cow; and I always feel, openly or flagrantly violate any admitted when I see people grin over her name, law. Such a position strikes, or ought to that somehow I only came off second-best strike, an educated political imagination as in the revenge I took on Uncle Nat Treloob. the highest of all possible absurdities. If

the Americans do not see it quite as strongly as we do, it is perhaps for a double reason,

— because they do not apply as vivid a poFrom The Economist, 30 May. 11:tinal imagination as w

ay. litical imagination as we do to the political THE SOBRIETY OF THE UNITED STATES' circumstances of their country, - and also SENATE.,

because, partly perhaps on that very acFOR reasons which we explained last count, political evils which we should think week, we cannot regard the acquittal of the of the most insupportable kind do not affect President, by the deficiency in the Senato-them so much, and indeed, so long as they rial majority for condemnation, as an event remain political, are felt to be in a region of much political good omen for the Consti- not quite near enough to affect seriously the tution of the United States. That a coun- true life of the nation. try should be declared liable, for any period But though we appreciate keenly - far short of the four years of presidential reign, more keenly than many of our contemporato be governed by a man who is so hateful ries — the unfortunate result of the impeachto the Legislature that he is thought, by ment, as showing absolutely no constituthirty-five out of fifty-four of the senators, tional loophole out of the inflexible system to be guilty of “high crimes and inisde- of the written Constitution, we cannot but meanours," and is held guilty by a much respect the remarkable proof of stability, larger proportion of the House of Repre- and in a certain sense doubtless of moral sentatives, is a political paradox scarcely stability, which some of the senators have to be equalled in the history of nations. given under circumstances of great trial Nothing seems to us to illustrate the rigidity, and pressure. We do not say whether or the utter want of flexibility, in the Ameri- not the section of Republicans who deserted can political Constitution, so, forcibly and their party, - Mr. Fessenden, Mr. Trumeven ludicrously as this little fact. The bull, Mr. Henderson, and Mr. Grimes, people establish a Legislature to make laws decided wisely and rightly. How far they for the Union. The people appoint a chief were or were not wise in their decision is a officer to carry out those laws. Nothing of point on which we do not feel called upon

But that they • Scald milk is the milk after the scald or clotted to express any opinion. cream is skimmed off.

| showed the highest kind of political con

scientiousness and firmness under some of of Mr. Johnson. They have disliked and the most trying circumstances to which poli- bitterly condemned his policy. They abhor ticians were ever yet exposed, is indisputa- the principles of the only party which has ble. Probably no party ever used weapons supported him. They think poorly of his more vulgar and violent to overwhelm hesi- motives and meanly of his powers. But tating members of it than the Republican they cannot convince themselves that he has party have used against these four senators. | been guilty of “high crimes and misdeThe New York correspondent of the Daily meanours" in the sense contemplated by News, himself a Republican, and at one the Constitution; and therefore, in spite of time at least — before the party became so incessant persecution, in spite of delegafierce and factious — a cordial supporter of tions which pursued them even into their the impeachment, details the disgraceful bed-rooms to insist on their changing their persecution to which these senators, who votes, in spite of every abuse the newspahave nothing to gain and much to lose by pers can lavish on them, they have stood their desertion of their party, have been ex- firm, and voted for a man whom they dislike, posed. The New York Tribune, says this condemn, and probably even despise, rather correspondent, “has an article on Mr. than violate their own political consciences. Grimes, of Iowa, every day, proving both There is a gallantry in this conduct which, his idiotcy and knavery. Another mode of whether we agree or disagree in their opinannoying him, which the same journal prac-ion, ought to raise very greatly our estimate tices, is to quote against him a line from the of the calibre of the American Senators. old song, running, Old Grimes is dead, — The difficulty of standing firm against the that good old man.' Yesterday morning it mass of your own party in a democratic had a paragraph at the head of its leading country like America, where public opinion columns consisting simply of the words gains a sort of artificial sacredness for the :Grimes is dead.' Its correspondent at consciences of politicians, to say nothing of Washington goes further still, and describes the violent penalties which it imposes on his guilty, ugly looks as he sits in the Sen-those who offend it-penalties of which ate.” This paper, — the paper of Mr. English political criticism gives us absoHorace Greeley, a man who at one time lutely no idea at all — must be incalculable. held high and honourable rank among jour- Party organization is there so close and nalists, – lets its Washington correspond- habitual that a man who sets it at defiance ent speak of Mr. Grimes as “ curling him-literally irritates it into insane rage such as self up on his seat [in the Senate) as mean, we have just illustrated. It is so accusnoxious, and repulsive as a hedgehog in the tomed to dictate that it gnashes its tecth cage of a travelling menagerie. Such is a when its dictation on a question of first-rate mere specimen of the mud thrown at the importance is defied. If the inflexibility of four Republican deserters from the party | the American Constitution is an evil - and for convicting Mr. Johnson. Now it is all we hold it to be a great evil — the inflexibut impossible that these men should have bility of the leading men who are engaged acted as they have from any but high and in applying it to practical politics is a mathonourable motives. It is true that they ter for pure congratulation. After all the may have felt a little pique at the elevation stability of the system depends on the staof Mr. Wade to the chair of the Senate, bility of character of the men whom the for which some of them had expected to be system breeds. If this be of a high calibre, chosen, and for which it seems certain that we may be sure that the deficiency of the some of them would have been far better system will sooner or later be amended, and fitted than Mr. Wade. But however possi. something more practicable and elastic subble it may be that a feeling of pique may stituted for the written law which now divides unconsciously have mingled with their mo- the Constitution against itself. But without tives, it is certain that it would have been probity and inflexibility of character in the far more conducive to any selfish and ambi-statesman, no system however perfect could tious hopes that they may have entertained, work for good. We are not sure that the had they supported their party instead of votes of Mr. Fessenden, Mr. Trumbull, incurring its bitter hatred.' There is noth- Mr. Henderson, and Mr. Grimes were right. ing that is harder in public life than for men we are sure that they were votes which to endure steadily the bitter vituperation prove that the United States can still proand reproaches of friends and followers, duce political martyrs for principle, and without being supported by any sympathy that it is through such men as these, whether with their opponents. This is, we believe, right or wrong in their individual judgment, precisely the position of the four Republi- that the democracy of the States will ultican senators who have secured the acquittal i mately be purified and saved.

No. 1260. - July 25, 1868.

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244

CONTENTS. HISTOIRE DE SAINT Louis,

North British Review, 195 2. ON SLEEP, . . .

North British Review, 213 3. THE GERMAN Customs PARLIAMENT, . . . . . London Review, . 222 OCCUPATIONS OF A RETIRED LIFE. PART IX.,

Sunday Magazine, . 224 5. GENERAL GRANT, . . . . . . . .

Spectator, . . . 236 6. LONGFELLOW, . .

Spectator, . . . 241 7. THE FALL OF SAMARCAND,.

Spectator, . . . 8. THE CHINESE EMBASSY : RECEPTION IN THE HOUSE OF

REPRESENTATIVES — THE ENDS OF THE EARTH - THE
BANQUET TO MR. BURLINGAME – CHINA AN EMPIRE OF
PROGRESS, . . . . . . . .

247

. . 9. THE RELIGIOUS DANGER OF THE CONTINENT, . . . Spectator, . . . 254

POETRY. THE MORAL OF THE PIQ; A BALLAD FOR GROWN-UP CHILDREN, . . . . . 220

SHORT ARTICLES. R. I. P., . . . . . 194 | DEATH OF CAPTAIN

. 194 | DEATH OF CAPTAIN NOLAN, . . . 235 SILCOTE OF SILCOTES, . . . . 212 ORIGIN OF DIXIE, . . . . . 246 FRANCE,

. . . . . 235 | HENRY C. WILLISTON, . . . . 256

JUST PUBLISHED AT THIS OFFICE :
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From The Owl. not accept the amendment. She was quite R.I.P.

aware that there were some ladies who adored

the luxury of grief, and who, thinking mourn. A MEETING was called a few days since at the

ing very becoming, preferred widowhood and a house of a well-known Dowager Countess to lay

y series of flirtations to going boldly forward and down a fresh code for the duration of mourning

competing for a Number Two, Three, or Four, amongst the Upper Classes. The noble Hostess be

as the case might be. (Murmurs.) With such ing called to the chair, opened the proceedings with

as these she had no patience. (Loud cheers.) a few appropriate remarks. She said that the

Let them go in, and, if they could, win. (Hear, introduction of railways and telegraphs had has

hear.) But as to loungers on sofas in widow's tened the action of human life and the mental

caps, with cottages at Petersham, and miniasystem to an unprecedented extent. Look at the

tures on guéridons, it was unfair - (cheers)Funds. It was impossible, from one half hour

unwomanly - (cheers) – unwidowlike — (loud to the other, to calculate on a permanent fall, or

cheers) — and un - English. (Reiterated apa permanent rise. A telegram might arrive any

plause.) moment at the Foreign Office, and Mr. Ham

| The Marchioness Cityward rose and said that mond might interfere with the best devised

before a division was taken she wished to ask a financial combination. In fact, she herself, on

few questions. She was not a widow, but soon the advice of an old Italian diplomatist, had

might be. Her husband — well, never mind; beared Austrian stock but a few moments be

but Marquises were sometimes partial to persons fore a telegram from Pesth had established an

- she used the phrase advisedly - to persons advance of three per cent. Then, again, look

who had wrongs. But never mind. She was at wars. What with railways and needle-guns

not a widow, and really hoped not to be one for a they had become narrowed to the smallest di

long time. But she wished to know — first, mensions, and a peace was concluded in the

whether the period of mourning was to begin space of time that, according to Sir Josiah Bar

running from the day of decease or the day of rington, used to be consumed with an Irish ball. 1 Courtships were over in three days. Honey-|

the funeral. This was a most important consid

:eration, and must not be overlooked. Secondly, moons were reduced to a week, and evanescent

she wished to know if, at the expiration of the affections, which used to last from one to two

mourning, supposing it to be a short one, the years, are reduced to as many months. Life now

principle of immediate remarriage was admitted. crowded into itself more events than were here

Lady Angela Sweetlove said she would at once tofore comprised in a generation, and it was therefore indispensable that the period of mourn

resolve these problems. She considered that in

cases where the mourning was to be under three ing should be curtailed, if, in fact, any at all

weeks it should date from the funeral. If for a were necessary. The noble Chairwoman there

longer term, from the date of the dear one's defore proposed that immediate steps should be

parture. As to the second question, she was of taken to establish a uniform rule, and she hoped that all private family traditions, as to

opinion that it must much depend on the eligi

bility of the proposed successor. the duration of grief, should be merged in the

Lady Maneater inquired what amusements general social legislation that would follow this

were available during the first burst of grief. important gathering.

| Lady Moire Antique took it on herself to say Miss Niobe Alpaca, from Jay's Warehouse,

e, that she saw no harm in the Polytechnic. having been selected as permanent salaried sec

This, retary, the following resolutions were discussed

- perhaps, did not suit all minds, in which case Lady Moire Antique, as an elderly widow,

the Opera, or a play in a retired box, might, un

der certain circumstances, be admissible, considered it her duty to espouse the cause of "

J A short discussion was then raised as to the those young married women who might ere long be reduced to the same sad condition as herself.

mourning to be observed by aunts, sisters, nieces, (Cheers.) The first function of a woman was

1: and cousins; but this being considered an unamusement. (Cheers.) The second, marriage.

neoessary waste of time, the question was put

ge; I and carried unanimously. (Louder cheers.) The third, grief. (Protracted

The President then reported progress, and tea applause.) It was with regret that she stated

was brought in. that the absurd regulations respecting grief that obtained in her youth had debarred her for one year from amusement, for two years from marriage. (Oh!) Without further preface, then, TURNING A TYPE INSIDE OUT. she would move the first resolution - “ That henceforth the mourning of widows for their The type of faith or Spiritual reliance, dear defuncts shall be limited to one week for Used to be “ DANIEL in the den of Lions." every year of marriage.”

But since a certain case in Chanceriè, The motion having been seconded,

“Lyons in DANIEL's den,” it ought to be. Lady Hysteria Gushing rose to move an

Punch. amendment, viz. — “ That after the word defuncts should be inserted the words, except in cases of perpetual woe.'”

Hiou WALK OF ART. — BLONDIN across NiLady Moire Antique replied that she could I agara.

Punch.

From The North British Review. | reign. Saint Louis was the Augustus or Histoire de Saint Louis. Par Félix Faure. the Pericles of the so-called Gothic style; Paris, 1867.

the marvellous cathedrals of Amiens, Bour

ges, the choir of Beauvais, and many other VOLTAIRE said of Louis IX., “Il n'est pas masterpieces of ecclesiastical structure; donné à l'homme de pousser plus loin la ver- such choice bijous as the Sainte-Chapelle, tu," and Voltaire can hardly be expected built as a reliquary for the crown of thorns, to be prejudiced in favour of a king consid- procured from the Emperor of Constantiered by the Church of Rome as a fit subject nople; a countless number of abbeys, confor canonization. The only rival, from a vents, hospitals, and fine specimens also of moral point of view, perhaps in all history, pointed-arch civil architecture ;– were either who can be found for Saint Louis, is Marcus completed or commenced in the reign of Aurelius. Both were perfect representa- Saint Louis. To use the picturesque lantives, the one of a religion, the other of a guage of the Sire de Joinville -" As the philosophy, which enjoined the practice of transcriber illuminates the book which he is self-abnegation to an almost superhuman writing with gold and azure, so the said extent. But history, as a rule, may be king illuminated his kingdom with the fine said, like children, not to evince any ex- abbeys which he built there, with Maisonstravagant attachment to those held up as Dieu and the monasteries of the Preachers paragons of exemplary conduct. She is (the Dominicans), and the Chartreux (the more fond of associating herself with the Franciscans), and other religious orders." grands scélérats of all ages — the Borgias, But it is as the last of the Crusaders that the Catherines de Medici, the Richards III., Louis stands in the most romantic light beand Philips II.; and to say the truth, unless fore posterity, and that history finds a tragic the paragon happens to be born in an age and sentimental interest in his life. The of revolution and trouble, his life is not Crusades, which began with Godfrey de likely to have much to do with those tragic Bouillon, ended with Saint Louis - both vicissitudes and episodes of terror which men of the grandest types of humanity, and rouse the wilder emotions into activity. the difference of which well illustrates the And the reign of Saint Louis especially, so progress of ethics and religion during the far as France is concerned, could, without two centuries and a half which intervened his Crusades, hardly be made very attract between them. . jve reading by any expenditure of human If it were not for the precious record art. Happy, it has been said, are the which has escaped oblivion, - the life-like people who have no history; and France, and charming narrative of the Sire de Joinfrom the date of the battle of Taillebourg in ville, — we should have a very imperfect 1242, down to the end of the reign of Saint acquaintance with the real character of Louis in 1270, was in the enjoyment of pro- Saint Louis ; and as it is, notwithstanding found peace. The only history of the coun- their close intimacy, and the delightful extry consists in a record of the yearly journeys ample of how a king and a hero can be faof the King from town to town, vigilantly miliar with a subject and yet retain his looking after the interests of his people,- of veneration, it is clear that Joinville was not his administrative and legislative reforms, capable of entirely comprehending the eleand in long accounts of the immense expendi- vation and nobility of the King's mind, and ture of his inexhaustible charities,- none of that Saint Louis exercised a good deal of which subjects offer very attractive mate- reserve towards him in the innermost conrial for readers fond of stimulants, and not victions and highest aspirations of his soul. given to special habits of study. One por- The piety of Saint Louis, like all true piety, tion of the achievements of his reign would was in the highest degree modest and senindeed be of the highest interest to the stu- sitive; and he forbore to make any display dent of art, if its history could be fairly of it, except so far as he thought it for their exhibited,- the progress of ecclesiastical own and the public good. He showed, in and civil architecture, since the pointed the unforeseen way in which he proclaimed arch style reached its perfection in this both his Crusades, that he knew how to

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