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meopathy may be defined as a specious a strict course of life, including exercise, mode of doing nothing. While it waits on temperance, regular hours, and a diet in the the natural progress of disease and the re- main simple and wholesome, though somestorative tendency of nature on the one what fanciful in its exclusions. The same hand, or the injurious advance of disease on was done, so far as was proper, in the prethe other, it supplies the craving for activity, vious practice of all judicious physicians. on the part of the patient and his friends, The use of cold bathing is not new, having by the formal and regular administration of been employed as a hygienic process from nominal medicine. Although homeopathy time immemorial by the civilized world. will, at some future time, be classed with As a therapeutic agent, cold affusion was historical delusions, yet its tendency has resorted to more than half a century ago, undoubtedly been to undermine the reliance and has been practised ever since in a on heroic practice which prevailed in former greater or less degree. But the peculiar times, both in this country and in Europe. mode of applying water by packing appears There was, perhaps, needed a popular delu- to be original with Priessnitz, an ignorant sion to institute the experiment on a suffi- German, to whom it owes its popularity. ciently large scale, to show that the sick may Like the Russian bath, in which alternate recover without the use of troublesome and approaches to scalding and freezing are said severe medication. There are not wanting to be followed at last by very delightful senin history similar instances of good results sations, the hydropathic discipline, in those flowing from questionable sources. The who have soundness of constitution sufficient French Revolution has eventually bettered to insure a healthy re-action, is followed by the social condition of the French people; agreeable and often salubrious results. Yet and the Mormons have brought the wilder- the ineffective character of hydropathy is ness of the Salt Lake to a state of produc- seen in the multitude of disappointed invative cultivation. Yet no judicious person lids who return unrelieved from its estabvindicates the doctrines of those who were lishments. I have been told, by persons prime movers in these innovations, or holds who have resided at Graefenberg, that funethem up as worthy examples for imitation. rals at that place were of constant occurSir Kenelm Digby produced a beneficial re- rence; and it is well-known, that Priessnitz, form in English surgery, and was able to bimself a robust peasant, died in the prime banish the prevalent mode of dressing in- of life, in the midst of his own water-cure. cised wounds with painful applications, by The greatest benefit at hydropathic estabspeciously going from the effect to the cause, lishments is obtained by those who reform and applying the active medicament, not to their mode of life by submitting to the rethe wound, but to the weapon that did the straints of the place. The luxurious, the mischief; thus giving to the former a chance indolent, the sedentary, and the erratic, imto heal by the first intention.

prove most under a return to regular, natuThere is great reason to believe, that, at ral, active, and temperate habits. Accordthe present day, homeopathic faith is not ingly it is found, that gout, dyspepsia, lost always kept up in its original purity by its appetite, hysteria, and the various forms of professors. Traces of the occasional use nervous irritability, furnish the most hopeof very heroic remedies are often detected ful subjects for such institutions. The same among the most unsuspected of its prac-patients might, in many cases, obtain the titioners. And it must not be concealed, same relief in another place, by pursuing that there are instances in which the temp- the water-cure without the water. tation is very great, even for the most reso- The universality of hydropathic applicalute convert, to come to the aid of the sick tion has been somewhat diminished by prowith reasonable and efficient doses of real longed experience. Priessnitz himself, almedicine. The man must be somewhat of though ignorant of science, and incapable a stoic who can look upon a case of severe of distinguishing one disease from another, colic, or of the multiform distresses which at last became cautious in his selections, and result from overtasked organs of digestion, nominally excluded diseases of the lungs and quiet his conscience with administering from his institution. inappreciable globules, instead of remedies.

4. THE EXCLUSIVE METHOD. — This, It is not necessary to dwell upon the valike the heroic system, is various in its rious exclusive modes of practice, more or means of treatment, but differs from it in less universal in their application, with the professed universality of its peculiar which the columns of newspapers are daily applications. Hydropathy applies one rem-filled. Mineral waters, taken at the founedy, cold water, to all cases. Yet, like ho- tain, are often of great use to those who meopathy, it combines with its special agent require a journey or a change of scene. Particular springs also appear to exeft a sciences mankind have made no greater adbeneficial effect on particular maladies, vances than ourselves, and are still upon though not panaceas for all ills. Watering the threshold of their respective structures. places, which combine amusement with ex- Medical assumption may well feel huinbled ercise, are the temporary safety-valves of by the most insignificant diseases of the huover-taxed physicians, and happily afford man body. Take, for example, a common arks of refuge to multitudes of chronic val- furunculus or boil. No physician can, by etudinarians. Electricity supports one or any internal treatment, produce it where it more establishments in all large cities, both does not exist. No physician can, by any in its simple form, and combined with all science, explain it, and say why it came on other imponderable agencies of mind and one limb, and not upon another. No phymatter. Few persons go uncured of chronic sician can, by any art, cure it after it has maladies without having given it a sufficient arrived at a certain height. No physician and satisfactory trial. Finally, the host of can, by any art, delay or retain it after it empirical remedies which fill the attention has passed the climax assigned to it by naof a very considerable portion of this quack- ture. And what is true in regard to a boil ridden world, leave no human maladies out is equally true of common pneumonia, of of the catalogue of subjects to their myste- typhoid fever, of acute rheumatism, of cholrious power. The drug aloes, in its hun- era, and many other diseases. dred pill combinations, levies incessant In the present state of our knowledge, contributions on those who purchase the the truth appears to be simply this : Certain privilege of being slaves to its use. Opium, diseases, of which the number is not very variously disguised with aromatics to con- great, are curable, or have their cure proceal its presence, gives temporary but falla- moted, by drugs, and by appliances which are cious respite to fatal diseases, under the strictly medicinal. Certain other diseases, deceptive names of pectorals and pulmonics. perhaps more numerous, are curable in like

It is superfluous to prolong the consider- manner by means which are strictly regimiation of general and exclusive remedies. nal, and consist in changes of place, occupaNo person accustomed to witness the vari- tion, diet, and habits of life. Another class ous morbid conditions which invade and of diseases are self-limited, and can neither occupy the human frame, active and passive, be expelled from the body by artificial partial and general, trivial and dangerous, means, nor retained in the body after their can ever consider them proper subjects for natural period of duration has expired. the same kind of treatment; unless, with Finally, a large class of diseases have proved Dr. Rush and Dr. Brandreth, he happens incurable from the beginning of history to to be a believer in the unity of disease. the present time, and under some one of

5. THE RATIONAL METHOD. — If no al- these the most favored members of the huternative were left to the physician and pa- man race must finally succumb; for even tient but the extreme and frequently irra- curable diseases become incurable when they tional methods which have now been briefly have reached a certain stage, extent, or comdescribed, practical medicine might well plication. take its rank as a pseudo-science by the side. It will be seen that the divisions last menof astrology and spiritualism. But the la- tioned cannot be strictly reduced under the bors of earnest and philanthropic men, dur- nomenclature of nosologies ; for cases, and ing many centuries, though often specula- groups of cases, may begin in one category tive, misguided, and terminating in error, and end in another. have nevertheless elicited enough of general. It is the part of rational medicine to study truth to serve as the foundation for a stable intelligently the nature, degree, and tensuperstructure. And, that such truth may dency of each existing case, and afterwards hereafter go on to accumulate, it must be to act, or to forbear acting, as the exigensimply and honestly sought, even when its cies of such case may require. To do all developments do not at once promote the this wisely and efficiently, the practitioner apparent interest of physicians, nor flatter must possess, first, sufficient knowledge to their professional pride of opinion.

diagnosticate the disease; and, secondly, It is to sincere and intelligent observers, sufficient sense, as well as knowledge, to and not to audacious charlatans, that we are make up a correct judgment on the course to look as the ultimate lawgivers of medical to be pursued. In the first of these, if propscience. Our present defect is, not that we erly educated and experienced, he will be know too little, but that we profess too able to make an approximation to the truth much. We regard it as a sort of humilia- sufficient for practical purposes. In the tion to acknowledge that we cannot always second he will have to depend mainly on his cure diseases; forgetting that in many other well-ordered and logical powers of selfdirection ; for he will find, in the recorded scribe blindly for symptoms, irrespectively evidence of his predecessors, quite as much of their cause, is often in the highest degree to mislead as to guide him rightly. He will injudicious. The alvine discharges of dysfind many existing cases, in which for a time entery and typhoid fever are the natural he will know not what to do, and in which ventings of an inflamed, perhaps ulcerated, his safest course will be not to do he knows mémbrane: the pain and the excess may not what. It is better to resort to a little ex- be abated by the gentlest anodynes; but pectancy, than to rush into blind and reckless the attempt to check them altogether would action. Nature, when not encumbered with be like the drying up of an external ulcer, overwhelming burdens, and when not abused of equal dimensions, by the sudden applicaby unnatural and pernicious excesses, is, tion of astringents. The object might be after all, “the kindest mother still." Art attained for a day, but the result would be may sometimes remove those burdens, and pernicious. Having already touched upon regulate those excesses; but it is not by im- this subject, I have only to add, that if many posing new burdens, and instituting new ex- of the troublesome appliances and severe cesses, that an end so desirable is to be at- exactions of modern practice were supertained. Before commencing any contem- seded by gentler, more soothing, and more plated course of treatment in a given case, natural means, a good would be done to the two questions should always be asked: 1. human race comparable to the conversion of Will it do good ? 2. Will it do harm ? A swords into ploughshares. right answer to these questions will not fail. It is the part of rational medicine still to to produce a light practice.

strive and study for the cure of diseases; It is the part of rational medicine to alle- not to assume fallaciously as practical truth viate the sufferings of the sick. And for what has never been shown to be true, but this end alone, were there no other, physi- rather to search and labor for new truth, cians would be necessary as a profession. for which it is never too late to hope. The For this end alone, any person knowingly rational physician will ever be ready to about to encounter the confinement of a self- weigh and examine, candidly and carefully, limited fever, or the lingering decay of a new practical questions and proposed modes cancer or consumption, would invoke the of treatment, whether introduced for the alguidance of a medical man whose judgment leviation or the removal of diseases; and he and skill were better than his own. The will recollect, that although nineteen out of power of the medical art to palliate diseases every twenty of the new methods proposed is shown in a multitude of ways, active, cau- may be worthless, yet the twentieth may tious, and expectant. The pain of acute perhaps possess some valuable quality. It pleurisy is relieved by venesection; that of is known that the most established laws of pleurodynia, by anodynes and external ap- science cease to be such when their excepplications. The pain of acute rheumatism tions have been detected and made out. is postponed by opium ; that of gout, by col- Some of the most important advances in huchicum. Synovitis is favorably affected by man knowledge have been among the latest rest; chronic rheumatism, more frequently in date. The great American discovery of by exercise. Demulcents, opiates, and even artificial anæsthesia has been wished and astringents, have their use in various irrita-' waited for by mankind ever since the Flood; tions of the mucous membrance. Cathar- yet the effectual conquest of pain is, as it tics, laxatives, emetics, leeches, counter-ir- were, a thing of yesterday. ritants, cupping, hot and cold applications, It is the part of rational medicine to re&c., are of benefit in various local and gen- quire evidence for what it admits and beeral maladies. Yet these remedies, espe- lieves. The cumbrous fabric now called cially the more energetic of them, are often therapeutic science is, in a great measure, employed when not necessary, and become, built up on the imperfect testimony of credby their degree and frequency, rather sources ulous, hasty, prejudiced, or incompetent of annoyance than of relief. Violent ca- witnesses, such as have afforded authorities thartics are followed by increased constipa- for books like Murray's “ Apparatus Medition, when milder laxatives or enemata would caminum," and Hahnemann's “ Organon." not have induced that evil. Blisters, anti- The enormous polypharmacy of modern times monial ointments, salivations, &c., may con- is an excrescence on science unsupported tinue to afflict the patient long after the dis- by any evidence of necessity or fitness; ease is gone. The effects of powerful de- and of which the more complicated formulas pletion are felt for months, and sometimes are so arbitrary and useless, that, if by any for years. Excessive stimulation by vinous chance they should be forgotten, not one in liquids may create or renew disease, or give a hundred of them would ever be re-inventrise to pernicious artificial wants. To pre-led. And as to the chronicles of cure of diseases that are not yet known to be cura- | dence, self-approval, and success in proporble, they are written, not in the pages of tion as they shall have informed mankind on philosophic observers, but in the tomes of these important subjects. The exaggerated compilers, the crudities of journalists, and impressions now prevalent in the world, in the columns of advertisers.

regard to the powers of medicine, serve It is the part of rational medicine to en-only to keep the profession and the public lighten the public and the profession in re-in a false position, to encourage imposture, gard to the true powers of the healing art. to augment the number of candidates strugThe community require to be undeceived gling for employment, to burden and disapand re-educated so far as to know what is point the community already overtaxed, to true and trustworthy from what is gratuitous, lower the standard of professional character, unfounded, and fallacious. And the pro- and raise empirics to the level of honest and fession themselves will proceed with confi- enlightened physicians.

MR. HENRY MORLEY recently announced the lar, and no temptation would have induced him discovery of a new poem which he believed to be to allow it to govern a plural verb” in this exMilton's own. It was found “in a handwriting traordinary manner. In closing he says that, like Milton's," written on a blank leaf in a copy granting its authenticity, it must have been of the original edition of Milton's poems in the written when Milton was very old and very ill; British Museum. The poem was an epitaph, and at the last quite “ off his head.” On 'no apparently designed for the writer himself, and other principle could the most careful, the most was signed “J. M., Oct. 1647," — when Milton ' learned, the most rhythmical, and the most was 38 years old. The London Spectator came Christian of our great poets have concluded his to Mr. Morley's assistance, and said a good critic epitaph with such a jumble from Bedlam as these might have imitated the style, but nobody but last ten lines :Milton himself could have infused into those long

“ This plant, tho' entered into dust, words, and far-fetched thoughts, and forced im

In its Ashes rest it must, ages, such a subtle melody as penetrates lines Until sweet Psyche shall inspire like these :

A softening and ætific fire, “ Think not, reader, me less blest,

And in her fostering arms enfold
Sleeping in this narrow chest,

This heavy and this earthly mould.

Then as I am I'll be no more,
Than if my ashes did lie hid
Under some stately pyramid.

But bloom and blossom as before,
If a rich tomb makes happy, then

When this cold numbness shall retreat
That Bee was happier far than men

By a more than chymick heat.”
Who, busy in the thymy wood,

The next day the question was settled in a
Was fettered by the golden flood

more summary manner by the following brief Which from the Amber-weeping tree Distilleth down so plenteously :

note, addressed to the editor of the Times :For so this little wanton elf

Sir - I have had to-day so many applications Most gloriously enshrined itself,

to see the edition of Milton's Poems, 1645, in A tomb whose beauty might compare the King's Library, in consequence of a letter With Cleopatra's sepulchre.”

by Professor Morley in your columns of yesterMr. Morley, however, is followed by a sharp day; att tovor is followed by a sharn day, attributing a MS. copy of verses at the end

of the volume to the poet Milton, that I am incritic in the London Times, who analyzes the

the duced to make it known that the poem is sub“subtle melody” of the epitaph without com- Iscribed with the initials “ P. M.," and not " J. punction. Referring to the lines

M.” as represented by Mr. Morley; and that, " Infant nature cradled here

moreover, the handwriting is not Milton's. In its principles appear,”

In this opinion I am confirmed by Mr. Bond,

the Keeper of the Department of MSS. I rehe writes that many poets have been quite indemain, etc.,

W. B. RYE, pendent of grammar, but Milton was not one of Assistant Keeper of the Department of Printed that school. “He was very particular in mak- Books, British Museum. ing a nominative singular govern a verb singu- | July 17.

From The London Quarterly Review. war to the knife, between free thought and 1. Life of Sir Walter Raleigh, 1552–1618. thought fettered and bound; between false

By JAMES AUGUSTUS ST. JOHN. Two hood that poisoned the sources of moral life,

Vols. London: Chapman and Hall. and truth which elevated and ennobled that 2. Bacon and Raleigh. By MARVEY NA-life

NA-life. How small seem the events of this

How small PIER. Cambridge: Macmillan. 1853. 3. Miscellanies. By CHARLES KINGSLEY.

age compared with the events of that, the London: J. W. Parker and Son. 1859.

dispute about Church-rates and compound 4. Poems. By Sir HENRY Wotton, Sir householders, compared with the great cause

WALTER RALEIGH, and Others. Ed- of liberty of conscience versus Roman infalited by the Rev. John HANNAH, M.A. libility, a National Government and a NaLondon: Pickering, 1857.

tional Church versus Papal supremacy in 5. Nouvelle Biographie Générale. Paris : both State and Church. How insignificant Firmin Didot.

are Abyssinian expeditions, entered upon THERE has scarcely been a greater man with timorous reluctance, contrasted with than Walter Raleigh, as there has scarcely the relentless war against the Spaniard in been an age more heroic than the latter every sea and under every clime. How half of the sixteenth century. Shakspere, great the difference between the leaders of Jonson, and the glorious company of dram- to-day, who have made expediency the first atists were his friends; he was Spenser's law of statesmanship, and the leaders of patron; he wrote Sidney's epitaph; Bur- three hundred years ago, who would sooner leigh and Bacon were his contemporaries, have committed suicide than have taken a though the one was by many years his sen- leap in the dark, bearing the British instituior, and the other by a few his junior. tion with them into the unknown depths of Hawkins, Frobisher, Drake, the Gilberts, the unexplored abyss. were all living when he lived, and some Walter Raleigh, noblest of Englishmen, were his own near kinsmen. And yet in has had probably more biographers than the age of giants, when men of full mental any other Briton that has lived. This is stature might well have seemed dwarfs, Ra- not surprising, the man being what he was. leigh towers above the rest; a more com- What is surprising is that the biographies plete, because a more many-sided, man than should have been so bad. His deeds were all. Soldier, statesman, poet, historian, worthy to be the subject of an epic; his discoverer — he was all these. Brave as wisdom to be chronicled in “table-talk.” Mars, beautiful and accomplished as Apollo, Such a life might have inspired even a dula veritable úvaš úvopūv, and yet not even lard, although Raleigh was too great for for Edipus himself was the warning more any one man to paint him as he was. But timely, “Call no man happy before his of this hero there is no record which has death." The age was worthy of the men. anything of the epic cast save as to size. There was waging a mighty conflict between Mr. Tytler's was until lately the standard light and darkness. The combatants as- life, and has good qualities. Mr. Marvey sumed many shapes, but the combat was Napier's essay corrected many of Mr. Tytalways the same. Now it was fought be- ler's mistakes : Mr. Kingsley's article in the tween the North with its Queen, fair of face North British Review, subsequently repubbut doubtful of heart, and the South with lished in his “ Miscellanies," displays the its Queen, true-hearted despite all her faults. most fervent admiration, but is rather a panNow it was fought between the Island with egyric than a biography. The lately pubits sailors, who never thought of numbers lished volumes, by Mr. James Augustus when England had to be defended, and the St. John, approach more nearly to the ideal Peninsula with its cruel and boastful cap-work. As in so many other instances, tains, who named invincible the fleet that time, which is ever removing us chronologwas to be overwhelmed with destruction ically farther from the deeds and actors of more complete than ever before or since history, is bringing us substantially nearer befell armada. Now it was the old faith to them. New sources of information are contending with the new, which yet was not constantly being discovered ; doubtful points the new but the old. Everywhere it was a are being cleared up, false traditions swept

LIVING AGE. vol. x. 400

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