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encouragement and observing the effect it He proceeds to suffer peculiar qualms about has upon him? Then the lover begins to those too positive assertions which he so assume those airs of special proprietorship innocently scribbled on note-paper and which appertain only to the husband; and posted to Sylvia. Perhaps he wonders if from the manner in which he comports him- she burnt them; and feels uncomfortable self in this new character the young lady on remembering how often she has talked may judge of what his developed conduct is of the exceeding care with which she hoards likely to be. If the prospect is not very every specimen of his beloved penmanship. enticing, she “drops" her suitor; there is There are now two courses open to him. a bitter little quarrel, much denunciation, If he fulfils his written and spoken vows, she earns some experience, and the reputa- he must marry a woman whom he would tion, among illogical persons, of being a rather not marry; and such a marriage is dangerous flirt. This is a very pretty the- not likely to be productive of extraordinary ory indeed; only we do not see why it happiness. If, on the other hand, he reshould not work both ways. Why should solves to withdraw from the society of Sylnot male flirts have the same excuse offered via, that gentle creature is down upon him for them? The women of the present day, with a lawyer's letter, giving him notice far more than the men, cultivate a polished of an intended action. Alas! for the poor reticence, a graceful reserve, and apparent suitor. Those tender epistles which he indifference which almost defy an inquiry wrote in the gushing fulness of his affection into their real nature. But a man who en- are now read to a tittering court; they are gages in a little preparatory experimental put in a prominent position in the newslove-making with several young persons at papers by the inhuman sub-editors; thcy once, or in succession, is hooted and scorned. furnish food for godless levity in smart leadWe accord to our women the right of play-ing articles. Then the damages. Impertiing a little with the various offers held out to nent inquiries are made as to his income, them; but we expect that our young men his position in society, and what not; and, should go straight ahead, like a blinded while he is perhaps at bitter feud with his horse, and run his nose against the first tailor and jeweller, two or three years' inperson who comes in his way. He has no come is demanded from him in order to solbusiness to look to the right hand nor to ace the wounded spirits of Sylvia. He the left. Society expects him to make up gains experience, doubtless, but he has to bis mind in the privacy of his own chamber, pay for it. Sylvia's friends look upon him and then come out and meet his doom like as a traitor and a villain ; his own friends a man. His business is not to consider, but regard him compassionately as a fool; he to marry. Let him be thankful for what he is made the butt of public ridicule; and has gets, and discover the character of his wife to yield up a larger sum of money, perhaps, in the impartial time which succeeds to the than he ever possessed at any one time in first blush of marriage.
his life. Persons have been known to inNo mortal man, however, was ever able cur these penalties more than once in their to accommodate his life to a theory; and so career; but such cases are rare, and point we find men continually making those ex- to some congenital defect of intellect. Inperiments which are supposed to be the ex- deed, the wretched and imbecile figure cut clusive right of women. Unfortunately, by a man who is prosecuted for breach of also, they sometimes go a little too far; promise of marriage is almost enough to and not only in withdrawing incur the rep- deter all other men from ever writing to a robation of society, but also put themselves woman under any circumstances whatever. within the reach of the law. Perhaps the The legal penalty is nothing to the ridicule suitor is at first quite charmed with his which he incurs. Perhaps the unholy delight choice. He forgets those prudent maxims which every reader of a newspaper experiwhich the wisdom of previous generations ences on meeting with the publication in a has handed down to him. There is nothing law court of a series of love-letters, is in all the earth to compare with his Sylvia ; partly due to his inward consciousness that and he does not mind in what form he utters he, too, has written as absurd rubbish, but the opinion. The mischief happens when was too prudent or lucky to do so pro bono be puts his opinion on paper, and records publico. his unalterable intention of making Sylvia The moral glaringly pointed out by all his wife. By-and-by he discovers certain such cases is the intelligible one of caution flaws in Sylvia's temper, or family connec- on the part of the suitor. He ought to contions, or individual history, of which he was duct his experimental research into the fair previously ignorant. He begins to reflect ;'one's character without putting his first and the affianced lover who hesitates is lost. hasty estimate upon letter-paper. It does
not at all follow that Sylvia looks merely to marrying a woman with a bad temper (the the acquisition of a certain sum of money existence of which he discovered when too when she institutes a suit against him on late) and incurring an action for breach of account of his faithlessness. If such be her promise of marriage, one hardly knows character, he deserves to be mulcted in which of the two evils is the greater. There heavy damages for not having discovered it is always this to be said on behalf of the in time. It is far more likely that anger action, that, while its immediate effects are and resentment caused by the gross insult very sore indeed, and bitter to be borne, of his desertion are the moving causes. they are got over in time; while an evilPerhaps he has already begun to pay atten- tempered wife sticks to you with the pertition to some other young person – or has nacity of a devil-fish. If the petty torments even had time to marry her; in which case of thirty years' living with such a woman no one can wonder at any act of vengeance be added up, they will form an amount of proceeding from the forsaken Sylvia. It agony compared with which the shame and must be remembered, also, that it may be ridicule of an action for breach of promise pure fickleness and inconstancy on the part are very little indeed. In either case, we of the suitor, and not his further experience heartily commiserate the victim. It is diffiof Sylvia's temper, which produces the ca- cult to say how much of this punishment he tastrophe; and in that case, he only pays deserves in respect of the want of prudence smartly for an inherent weakness of char- he has displayed; though it seems suffiacter. Other cases occur in which the de- ciently hard that he only of the two persons fendant has been entrapped into promising concerned should suffer. The “damage marriage by a scheming woman whose sole done to her feelings,” which the young object is money. Then the best course for lady's counsel invariably dilates upon, is a the unhappy victim is simply to say to this mild sort of evil when contrasted with the person — “Very well, I will marry you, as frightful consequences which must fall upon I said, I won't give you any money for the defendant, whatever course he may purthe return of my letters. I won't hear of sue. A contemplative man, regarding such any compromise. If you wish, I will marry a prospect, will be disposed to think that in you; and I promise you I will make your the list of evils from which we pray every marriage so hot' for you that you will Sunday morning to be delivered there wish yourself dead, or in Pentonville Prison should be included “an action for breach as a happy relief.” In the simpler case of of promise of marriage." a man being compelled to choose between
From Good Words. | The dreadful weight of giant wheels
Amongst them in a moment steals,
And death is rolling at their heels. "A noble instance of self-sacrifice was witnessed at Newcastle on Sunday (May 31). While four chil. She ran with one to reach the side ; dren were playing on the railway near the station, And reach'd it, and look'd back, and spied, an engine and tender came up. One little fellow Where the dar
Where the dark wheels right towards them slide, ran for the platform, and his example was followed by his elder sister. Looking back, however, she saw that the other two children were in imminent dan. The other two that were forgot, ger. She returned to them, and drew them to her
So they were safe ; but there she lay,
Nor any word could Margaret say,
But closed her eyes, and pass d away.
- My little heroine ! though I ne'er
Can look upon thy features fair,
Nor kiss the lips that mangled were :
Yet thy true heart, and loving faith,
God saw, and He remembereth.
E. T. PALGRAVE,
From The Quarterly Review. | Democracy has no doubt much to answer History of Lace. By Mrs. Bury Palliser. for, but we must pause before we place the London, 1865.
swallow-tail coat on its shoulders. LACE may to unthinking persons seem
Needlework or embroidery was practised but a gossamer subject for history; and the
| in the earliest times of which we have any fairy fabric has indeed had a gossamer fate,
record. Aholiab receives special notice in having been unceasingly tossed up and
Exodus as the great embroiderer in blue; down in the gusts and storms of political
the web of Penelope needs no mention, passion and religious revolution; yet trifles
and of the mother of Nausicaa, Homer tells
USlight as air acquire historically a grave significance, just as the foam of the sea may 'H LÈVÉTo čoxúpn noto, ovv úuoltóÑOLOL Yuvaukiv mark the track of a leviathan. Lace in
ηλάκατα στρωφώσ' άλιπόρφυρα. deed exercises no longer the great empire which it once possessed, either over the In the middle ages no queen or lady of a male or female mind, and its loss of the great chief of feudalism disdained to train allegiance of one of the sexes appears to up her daughters in the dexterous use of be complete; so Mrs. Palliser has very apt- the needle. But lace is a modern invention, ly undertaken the function of becoming the and comprises the three divisions of cutGibbon of the decline and fall of lace, at work, lace, and guipure. Cut-work, or least as regards the male portion of the open-work embroidery, was the parent of community. Lace appears now, alas! to lace. Lace is defined to be a plain or orbe permanently banished from the necks of namental network, wrought of threads of judges, bishops, and kings, and the cravats gold, silver, silk, flax, or cotton interworof fops and heroes, and its use is monopo- en; as for defining ‘guipure' the thing aplized by that half of the species who enjoy pears to be impossible, the feminine mind also the exclusive prerogative of wearing having fluctuated very considerably as to gay feathers and bright colours. A good the distinctive qualities to be demanded of many smart things have been said about a well constituted .guipure.' In its early fashion, but it is yet to be desired that some stage it was considered that it ought to be writer may arise and perform for the · Phy-made of twisted silk and ' cartisane,' which siologie du Goût,' as applied to dress, the latter was a little strip of vellum forming a service which Brillat-Savarin rendered in raised pattern, but the nature of guipure respect of the arts of the table. A com- has so changed that Mrs. Palliser herself mon psychological condition no doubt un- asks in despair, “How is the word now to derlies the countless avatars of fashion, and be defined or circumscribed?' the political, metaphysical, and æsthetic The Italians, who invented forks, and ideas of the day. It is important, however, who set the fashion for all Europe in the that the subject should be not too lightly fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, lay claiin taken in hand, and by an investigator duly also to the invention of point or needlequalified. Some light surely would be made lace. Writers on lace are not, howthrown on human nature, on the course of ever, agreed as to whether the art of fine events, and the difference of the sexes, needlework is of Byzantine origin, and inif one could clearly understand why the fe- troduced into Italy by the Greeks of the male bonnet has dwindled, almost within Lower Empire, or whether it was learnt the memory of man, from the size and shape from the Saracens of Sicily, just as the of a colossal coal-scuttle to dimensions ex- Spaniards are said to have caught it from ceeded by the milliner's bill, while the male the Moors. Those who advocate the latter cylinder has altered but a few barleycorns opinion rely on the fact that the verb for in height or brim for the same period. As embroidery is of Moorish origin both in it is we say at present in vain –
Italian and Spanish, “Ricamare,' • Ricamar, • Tell me, where is . fashion' bred,
being the two forms of the word in quesOr in the heart, or in the head,
tion. Be this as it may, the lace fabric exHow begot, how nourished?'
isted in Italy in the fifteenth century, as is
I proved by a document of the Sforza family, And we are quite in the dark as to why the
dated 1493. The Florentine poet, Firenincalculable balloon skirt suddenly sinks
zuola, who wrote between 1520 and 1530, conically down into the shape of a datura
composed an elegy upon a collar of laced flower or penny trumpet, and as to what
Upoint made by the fingers of his mistress : connection may exist between the modern pantaloon and the emancipation of the ten Questo collar scolpi la donna mia pound householder, Comte's • Positivism' Di basso rilevar ch' Aracne mai and Tupper’s • Proverbial Philosophy.pl E chi la vinsi nol faria più bello.'
The pictures also of Carpaccio and Bellini declares that lace cornettes or caps were show evidence of the existence of white worn in that country as early as the fourlace or passament in 1500.
teenth century. Pillow lace, at all events, Venice indeed, as in most other points was first made in the Low Countries. In a of fashion of that time, when all fine gen- side chapel of the choir of St. Peter's at tlemen thought it indispensable to have Louvain is an altar-piece by Quentin Mat
swum in a gondola,' took the lead. Ven-sys, of the date 1495, in which a girl is ice point, however, which must have formed making lace with bobbins on a pillow simian exasperating item for husbands among lar to those of the present day. The lace the expenses of a lady's toilette in the days manufacture of Flanders supported itself of Queen Elizabeth, is manufactured no better amid the horrors of the atrocious remore. In Mrs. Palliser's book are to be ligious persecutions of the Duke of Alva found beautiful specimens of its rich text-than any of the other noted fabrics of the ure, resembling elegantly carved marble or Netherlands - the great cradle of modern ivory, in patterns of a kaleidoscope and industry. Every country in Northern Eugeometrical fashion, or of the elaborate rope, France with the exception of Alençon, tracery of the Renaissance period. Genoa Germany, and England learned the art of also was famous for its point lace, and lace-making from Flanders. Saint Simon informs us that a certain Mad
For lace let Flanders bear away the belle,' ame de Puissieux consumed Genoa point to the amount of 200,000 crowns (20,0001.) says Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, and in one year, while Tallemant des Réaux, the line holds good still amid all the vicissitaking advantage of her reputation, says tudes of commerce, and in spite of the close the same lady eat point coupé to an unlim- rivalry which now besets it in the Point ited extent.
d'Alençon. The government, however, took Spanish point was as famous in its day as fright when the manufacture of Point de that of Flanders or Italy. Thread lace was France was established by Colbert, and atmanufactured in Spain as early as 1492, for tracted numbers of lace-making emigrants a lace alb in which the late Cardinal Wise- to this country. An Act was passed, dated man once officiated, and valued at 10,000 Brussels, in 1698, threatening with punishcrowns, is preserved in the Cathedral of ment all who should entice the lace-workers Granada, memorable as being presented to across the frontiers. the Church by Ferdinand and Isabella.* Brussels lace, from the earliest days of
In the dissolution of the Spanish monas- the manufacture of the time, has, like the teries in 1830 an enormous quantity of steel of Toledo, held a foremost reputation Spanish point was thrown upon the market, among its rivals. It has acquired the name the exquisite workmanship of nuns, who, of Point d'Angleterre, but this is a smugregardless of time, would expend all the gled appellation. In 1662 the English Parskill of their needles on vestments destined liament, alarmed at the sums of money exfor pious uses.
pended on foreign point, and desirous of The manufacture of silk lace or blonde protecting the English bone-lace manufacis now carried on principally at Almagro in ture, passed an Act prohibiting the imporLa Mancha, and occupies from 12,000 to tation of foreign lace. But the Court of 13,000 people. The principal article of Charles II., with its Buckinghams, Rochesmanufacture is, of course, the national ters, and its fine ladies like Lady Castle• mantilla,' which is held sacred by law, and maine, who wore the finest smocks and cannot be seized for debt. There are three linen petticoats laced with rich lace at the kinds of • mantillas.' That of white blonde, bottom that ever Pepys saw,' so that it did suiting ill with the complexion of the olive- his heart' good to look at them,' must. faced ladies of Spain, and only used on have its due supply of lace. Therefore the state occasions, birthdays, and bull-fights English lace-merchants first tried to set up on Easter Mondays. That of black blonde, manufactories of Brussels lace-workers in trimmed with deep lace, and the mantilla England; but failing in this through want de tiro,' for ordinary wear, made of black of the proper flax, they adopted the more silk trimmed with velvet. The black blonde simple expedient of buying up the choicest of Spain, however, does not equal that of laces of the Brussels mart and then smugChantilly.
gling them over to England and selling Flanders disputes with Italy the glory of them under the false title of Point d'Anthe invention of lace. Baron Reiffenberg
a great adept in the arts of the needle. Until quite + Catherine of Aragon, according to tradition, in- lately the lace-makers kept Cattern's-day' as the troduced the art of making lace into Bedfordshire holiday of their craft, in memory of the good Queen during her sojourn at Ampthill in 1631-33. She was / Catherine.
gleterre,' or English point, as though of | in Brussels lace, the bride and the réseau. home manufacture.
• Angleterre à bride,' however, was disOf the rate at which lace was consumed continued a century back. at that day an idea may be formed by the Brussels lace had, nevertheless, one great account of the seizure of a smuggling ship fault — from being so much manipulated in with a cargo of 744,953 ells of lace, with the manufacture by the hands of the workout reckoning handkerchiefs, collars, fichus, ers it acquired a reddish-yellow hue. In aprons, petticoats, fans, gloves, &c., all of order to obviate this defect the workwoman the same material. The title Point de powders the flowers, previously to sewing Bruxelles' then went out of fashion alto them on, with white lead. However, even a gether, and “Point d'Angleterre'.took its taste for discoloured lace was prevalent in place both in England and France.
the last century, and our grandmothers, The best Brussels lace is made only in when not satisfied as to the richness of disBrussels: –
colouration, rewashed their lace in coffee.' • The thread used in Brussels lace is of extra
The pattern of Brussels lace has always ordinary fineness. It is made of flax grown at
followed the fashion of the day. The most Brabant, at Hal, and Rebeca Rognon. The ancient examples of Brussels lace are in the finest quality is spun in dark underground rooms, Go
& Gothic style of ornament, and changed from for contact with the dry air causes the thrend to this to the flowing artificial style of the last break; so fine is it as almost to escape the sight. century; after passing through the 'genre The feel of the thread as it passes through the fleuri,' of the First Empire, the patterns of fingers is the surest guide. The thread-spinner Brussels lace now follow nature and become closely examines every inch drawn from her dis- every year more truly artistic. taff; and when any inequality occurs, stops her Mechlin lace, however, to which Napowheel to repair the mischief. Every artificial leon compared the spire of Antwerp Cathehelp is given to the eye. A background of dark dral, is the prettiest of laces, as Brussels is paper is placed to throw out the thread, and the the most beautiful. Its distinguishing featroom so arranged as to admit one single ray of,
single ray of ure is the flat thread which forms the flower light upon the work. The life, of a Flemish
and gives the lace the character of embroidthread-spinner is unhealthy, and her work requires the greatest skill; her wages are therefore
ery, hence sometimes called broderie de proportionately high.
Malines. The manufacture of it, however, It is the fineness of the thread which renders
has long been on the decline. . the real Brussels ground called vrai réscau so
Mechlin is essentially a summer lace, costly. The difficulty of procuring this fine being charming when worn over colour. threail at any cost prevented the art being es. It was in great favour in the last century. tablished in other countries.'
George I. wore Mechlin cravats. Of the
beau of 1727, we read — In 1787, Lord Gordon, a Scotch Lord of Session, who was seized with the passion Right Macklin must twist round his bosom and of the day for improving all sorts of British wrists.' manufactures, writes :
Swift writes — • This day I bought you ruffles, and some beau Now to another scene give place; tiful Brussels lace, the most light and costly of Enter the folks with silk and lace, manufactures. I had entertained, as I now sus
Fresh matter for a world of chat. pect, a vain ambition to attempt the introduc
Right India this, right Macklin that.' tion of it into my humble parish in Scotland; In • Roderick Random’ the fops. naval but
e thread and military, of the day have their hair is of
nake it powdered with maréchal, and wear cambric in this country. It is brought from Cambray and Valenciennes, in French Flanders; and five
shirts with Malines lace dyed with coffee
: or six different artists are employed to form the 8 nice part of this fabric, so that it is a complica
plica Lady Wortley Montague writes of an inted art which cannot be transplanted without a cipient lover passion as strong as mine for manufactures, and • With eager beat his Mechlin cravat moves, a purse much stronger. At Brussels, from one
He loves, I whisper to myself, he loves.' pound of flax alone they can manufacture to the value of 7001. sterling.'
We pass over the other Flemish towns to
• arrive at France, which has since the deAfter this, one may, with Mrs. Palliser, cline of Venice always set the fashion in quote Spenser's line —
dress, and now, in the opinion of some, ri• More subtle web Arachne cannot spin.'
sine vals Brussels in lace-manufacture.
| After its first period of servile Italian imThere were formerly two kinds of ground itation, which lasted up to the time of the
The three innot mak