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body that he was rash enough to contemplate be hoped from the 17th of August, if only an insulated interference with the mighty the heat can be endured till that day. If organization of English society. The truth any one mentions, — what we believe is is, that no one who lives in a society adapted true, – that it has been very wet over the to the needs of the tropics has the least Atlantic, while the land has been so dried idea of the discomforts of tropical heat in up with heat; that the Shetlands have been a society modelled on quite other ideas. deluged, while even North Britain has been Fancy telling your servants that for the next parched, — that it has rained hard in Italy, two months they must be up at half-past while it has been so sultry in England, listhree or four o'clock at latest, and may go teners will ask angrily what hope there is in to bed again at nine, and insisting on the that, and yet privately take comfort. But baker and the milkman adapting themselves all this catching at straws really aggravates to these new regulations! Why, you might the mischief, and makes us infinitely more just as well request them all to leave off feverish and hotter. There is almost as their clothes as leave off their habits! Their much anxiety in the eyes of the dogs and only idea of adapting themselves to the other dumb animals — cats excepted, which heat is unlimited beer, which adds more to don't object to any heat, -as there is in the internal heat than any other cause. It men. But the dumb creatures do not agis a great wonder, and a sign perhaps of gravate the evil, like rash men, by attemptslightly increased pliancy in the English na-ing insulated revolutions in habits of life ture, that so many men carry about umbrel- which it is obvious they have not the power las to screen them from the sun, — a sight to carry out, or by catching at vain sources which ten years ago was never seen in Eng- of hope. land even in the most scorching summers. On the whole, the remedies practicable in But as to altering vitally the whole context England against the heat seem to reduce of society in the way needful to utilize the themselves to a few; - first of all, submiscool morning hours, and for a month or two sion, and not conflict; – then abstinence only, we are as yet very remote indeed from from heat-producing food, butter, fat, sugar, any such social elasticity as that.
malt, and the like, — abstinence from the But besides the curiously spasmodic fail-temporary delights of cold shower baths, ures which are made in the attempt to adapt which are apt to produce tremendous reacourselves by temporary expedients to a cli- tion, and to fever the skin in the end more mate which we only experience about twice than they have cooled it, except, of course, in twenty or thirty years, there are other the regular morning shower bath, which is curious moral interests belonging to the invaluable to strengthen you for the fatigue present dispensation, – the most curious be- of the day; - a slightly reduced diet, plenty ing, perhaps, the moral straws at which fe- of tea as hot as you can drink it, as much verish people catch in their desire for cool- air as can be got, – air even with sun, rather ness, and the indignation with which a man than shadow without it; - and for those who catches at one straw himself, treats the who can afford luxuries, frequent change favourite straw of another. If one man of clothes in the day-time, and, best of all, ventures (very wildly) to hope for a change a reserve bed at night, with cool linen sheets, from the approaching total eclipse of the in which refuge may be taken when the first sun, for instance (which is not visible, by bed has become hot and crumpled with tossthe way, in England, though that has no ing; and he who cannot afford this might more to do with the matter than the eclipse at least change his night shirt for a cool, itself, and nevertheless, if known, might fresh one, air well his bed, without too have had something to do with the imagina- much energy of mind or body, and then lie tion of the conjecturer), his hearers will down again ;- but, above all, no voluntary look ferociously at him as if he were raising restlessness, no roaming about the house in false hopes gratuitously, and one of them, the midnight hours in moody despair; no perhaps, after remarking viciously that that pleading your miserable destiny to the shinis above three weeks off yet, will proceed ing and careless stars, or to the airless, sulto inquire how the accident of the moon's try night. If bathe you must, warm water, passing so exactly between the sun and the not cold, is the most likely to soothe ai i earth as to extinguish its light from a small produce rest, warm water to the feet espepart of the earth for an hour or so, is to cially being a great alleviation of fever and have more effect than any ordinary night, sleeplessness. But the most fatal thing of when the body of the earth itself extin- all in the present weather is the revolutionguishes the sun's light on half its surface ary temper, — the attempt (which must fail) for many hours. And yet all the while there to wrestle with the arrangements of society, will be a faint notion that something is to and effect a revolution in favour of Oriental modes of life. Quietism is the mood of an action, not a thought. Endeavour inces mind most favourable to a moderate temper- santly, with all the strength that is in you, to ature of body. Acquiesce in everything, ascertain what — there where you are — there even, if it be possible, in clothes. Surren
as you are — you can do in this world; and der your will. forget your temper, avoid upon that bend your whole faculties; regarding every sort of friction, material and moral ;
al reveries, feelings, singular thoughts, moods, murmur not at any mischance; and slide
&c., as worth nothing whatever, except as they
bear on that, and will help you towards that. through your duties, if you can, till the au
Your thoughts, moods, &c., will thus in part tumnal evenings and mornings strike cool
e cool legitimate themselves, and become fruitful posagain. The elections are not till November.
sessions for you; in part fall away as illegiti. There is a time for energy and a time for mate, and die out of the way, and your goal will patience; - this is the time for patience,' become clearer to you every step you couragewhich is the coolest of the virtues, — the ously advance towards it. No man ever underraspberry vinegar of the mind. Change any stood this universe; each man may understand unendurable situation silently and peace- what good and manful work it lies with him to ably, without chafing, - as you would get accomplish there. from your hot bed into your cool bed at "Cheer up, there's gear to win you never saw!' night, if you could. So only, and not by Is
So says the old song; and I can say no more to moral fevers of revolution, inay we live it
you. — Yours, with many good wishes, out, till the time of tyranny be overpast.
“T. CARLYLE.” The Dalkeith Herald remarks upon this From The Spectator.
| letter, not, as we think, with any great ap
positeness, that it would have been well MATTHEW ARNOLD vs. THOMAS CARLYLE.
if Mr. Rodger had laid to heart the stern MR. MATTHEW ARNOLD has been preach-practical wisdom of which it is so remarkaing from month to month in the Cornhill on ble a specimen.” Now, why the sort of the importance of developing the intellect in crime laid to Mr. Rodger's charge (the Livfull proportion to the will, and of resisting erpool paper from which we make this exthat “ Hebraizing” tendency which makes tract calls him, we know not on what evitrue thought of no account in comparison
dence, “Rodger the forger,") should be with earnest action; and as if on purpose
supposed to have sprung out of any failure to afford him a fresh text, an old letter of to“ understand always that the end of man Mr. Carlyle's has just been published which is an action, not a thought," it is not very would have furnished this great prophet of easy to see. Mr. Rodger appears to have modern Hellenism with a reinarkable theme been brought before the Justiciary Court for his discourse. Indeed, we can have no
for an action, not for a thought, and we doubt that Mr. Arnold would have availed think Mr. Arnold might probably assert, himself eagerly of the following characteris- with a little more plausibility than attaches tic little epistle, had it passed beneath his to the remark of the Dalkeith Herald, that eye while he was preparing the papers on
it is more likely that he went astray as he is Hebraism and Hellenism for the Cornhill. said to have done not from having insuffiIt seems that a Scotchman by the name of
ciently striven to precipitate himself into acRodger, who made an appearance not very
tion, but from his having insufficiently mascreditable the other day in the Court of
tered for himself the intellectual preliminaJusticiary (at Dalkeith?), wrote to Mr.
ries of action ; — from not having brought Carlyle in 1850, in a desponding spirit, to
a sufficiently “free play of consciousness to which letter Mr. Carlyle made the following
bear upon the object of pursuit,” – in short, reply:—
from the undue “o subordination of thinking
to doing.” And indeed, it is quite conceiv“CHELSEA, November 17th, 1850.
able that Mr. Carlyle's earnest admonition “ Apparently you are a young man, of unu-l to Mr. Rodger to " endeavour incessantly gual, perhaps of extreme sensibility, and placed with all the strength that was in him to asat present in the unfortunate position of having certain what he could do in this world, and nothing to do. Vague reverie, chaotic meditations, the fruitless effort to sound the unfathom
upon that bend his whole faculties," may able, is the natural result for you. Such a form
have precipitated him with undue intensity of character indicates the probability of superior
upon a line of action quite unsuitable for capabilities to work in this world; but is also,
him, whence arose, not, indeed, his inunless guided towards work, the inevitable pro
fractions of moral law, but undue temptaphecy of much suffering, disappointment, and tions to break the moral law which he might failure in your course of life.
not otherwise have incurred. Mr. Arnold “Understand always that the end of man is will certainly think that the great Hebraizing prophet of our day, — in Mr. Arnold's we must act rightly before we can see. sense of the term “Hebraizing" — the clearly, and those who tell us that we must prophet who more than any other has ridi- see clearly before we can act rightly? We culed the attempt to see things as they really can neither agree with Mr. Carlyle that “an are, who has made laborious earnestness of action, not a thought, is the end of man," conduct the whole law and the gospel, nor with Mr. Matthew Arnold that the chief may have overdriven many consciences into weakness of the English nation is rushing lines of action for which they were ill adapt-into action before it is prepared for action, ed. He may very well believe that had they by submitting its habits and notions to a been encouraged instead to let “conscious- free play of consciousness.” It seems to ness play freely round the stock notion or us that neither the Hebraizer nor the Helhabit" by which their proposed career was lenizer is likely to lead us right, while they moulded, their consciences might have been go on with their endless balancings of the delivered from snares to which they have value of action against thought and of actually succumbed. Whether Mr. Rodger thought against action. No man is really be, indeed, a victim of the Carlylian dogma competent to weigh the different parts of or not, Mr. Arnold may fairly maintain that his nature, — to determine, as Mr. Arnold it was not through too wide an intellectual seems to propose, which is the least develsurvey that he embarked on the policy which oped and wants development most, — and landed him in the Court of Justiciary, and then set to work to exercise the least enerexposed him to the stern rebukes of the Dal- getic, and restrain the most energetic part, keith Herald. Whether the gospel of Hel- as you would exercise a muscle that was delenism, the invitation to think more and act ficient, and leave a mighty biceps idle for a less, to beware of action till the mind is ripe time till it was in some proportion to the for it, be a reinedy or not for most men, rest of the muscular system. The vice of there can be no doubt that, to most persons, this idea is that the moment you appeal to headlong actions — that is, actions which go the æsthetic sense, as Mr. Arnold seems to before thought, - ensure suffering. Mr. us to do, to regulate the whole character, Arnold's old college friend, Mr. Clough, you bring to the front that paralyzing selfhas warned us against a doctrine which is consciousness which cannot but give a serperhaps the only one preached in common timental and histrionic turn to the whole atby Dr. Newman and Mr. Carlyle,the titude of the mind. Once let a man make doctrine that the will must on all great mat- self-culture his main object, and, for him, ters anticipate the intellect, that the intel-culture of the highest kind becomes imposlect grows lucid in the track of right action, sible, true harmony of nature being, like instead of action growing noble in the track true modesty, an unconscious beauty, and of wise thought. Mr. Člough says, in his not a conscious and deliberate result of delspirited hexameters :
icate and difficult balancing operations car
ried on within the mind. We suspect that “I do not like being moved, for the will is ex- the true Hebraizing teaching is higher than. cited; and action
and includes, both what Mr. Arnold calls Is a most dangerous thing; I tremble for some
Hellenism and what he calls Hebraism, and thing factitious, Some malpractice of heart and illegitimate pro
does not compel recourse to these internal
weights and measures which Mr. Arnold cess; We are so prone to these things with our terrible handles so skilfully, but also, as it seems notions of duty."
to us, with such insignificant moral results.
The true doctrine — the Christian doctrine There spoke the mind in revolt against - seems to us to be that while all knowlthe great doctrine of Dr. Newman and Mr. Jedge is good for its own sake, the knowledge Carlyle, that action is greater than thought, which grows out of right action is of a more that thought should be moulded by action. vital kind, and of a greater breadth and And Mr. Arnold in these airy ethical papers depth, than the knowledge preceding such in the Cornhill is following Mr. Clough's action which is mainly speculative and inlead, trying to hold back the eager, precipi-tellectual; that it leads us deeper into the tate English nation from so much action, life of God, and gives us a glimpse of the till it has a clearer insight into what it springs of Creation which we cannot gain would be well to aim at, — to make it count from the mere contemplation of anything. the cost more patiently first, and not court If any man will do His will, he shall the contest till it understands clearly what know of the doctrine whether it be of God, the issue is.
or whether I speak of myself,” is surely Now, how shall we decide between these neither Hebraistic nor Hellenistic teaching, opposite teachers, - those who tell us that I but the perfect combination of the two. It
does not postpone knowledge to action, nor is at present simply impossible in Ireland, action to knowledge, but assumes a certain and he would therefore have statesmen wait amount of knowledge as the basis for action and set in motion this “free play of con
- the knowledge of some specific demand sciousness” till it becomes possible. In the of God's will, and promises that all ac- mean time, of course, we lose the opportution really founded on this knowledge shall nity of proving our real wish to do justice yield up more and better knowledge as the in Ireland, till we can do it in the precise result of this action. There is no attempt way most intellectually satisfying to ourhere to compel a leap in the dark, to force selves. We postpone the only pledge of action in anticipation of knowledge, still sincerity and desire for equal dealing which less is there anything like Mr. Arnold's re- we could give, because Ireland is not ready commendation to see well all round you be- for the one we should like to give. Which fore you move at all. All it says is, -course of the two would really lead to the 'given light enough for one action, that ac- greater spread of light, – Mr. Arnold's of tion shall yield more light;' -' given the amusing ourselves with wide intellectual attitude of mind so finely described by Dr. discussion calculated to make the NonconNewman, —
formists give up their Anti-State Church “ Keep Thou my feet, I do not ask to see
and No-Popery prejudices, — or the volupThe distant scene, - one step enough for me," —
tary sacrifice of a Protestant badge of su
periority and a genuine etfort to deal fairly and then for the next step, — this step, if by the Irish Catholics in the only way in taken, shall give out its own light.' But it which Englishmen, as at present educated, does not ask us to take any step at all in are willing to deal? We do not doubt that the dark. There is nothing here opposed the narrow No-Popery prejudices, and the to Mr. Arnold's wish to bring a “ free play narrow anti-State-Church prejudices too, will of consciousness” to bear on the traditional yield infinitely faster under the influence of principles of action, so long as he does not the most genuine act of justice, — narrow if keep us so much fascinated by this free play you please, -- but still justice, for which of consciousness, that we forget to act di- England is at present prepared, than under rectly we see a clear ground for action. the most gigantic efforts to bring a “ free The tendency of Mr. Arnold's teaching is to play of consciousness” to bear on narrow delay all action till we have got not only a motives, of which even a host of Matthew distinct right step or two before us, but a Arnolds would be capable. Which did wide field of clear survey round us, – and most to sap anti-Catholic prejudices, the this, we maintain, is not only to obstruct act of public justice to Catholics done in right action, but to obstruct intellectual | 1829, or on the books which have brought sight.
| a “ free play of consciousness” to bear on Mr. Arnold in this last paper gives illus- Catholicism? Even Mr. Arnold, we think, trations of his meaning which seem to us to will say the former. And so, too, as to prove this weakness. He reproaches the primogeniture. Mr. Arnold despises the Liberals for two weaknesses, - yielding to imbecility of so poor an act as the abolition the cry against the Irish Church before they of the law ruling the demise of real estate could carry out their own statesmen's higher in the case of intestacy. He thinks intelidea of “concurrent endowments;" — and lectual discussion freely brought to bear on yielding to the cry against the law of pri- aristocratic settlements on eldest sons an mogeniture, and in favour of equal division infinitely stronger weapon. We do not bein case of intestacy, where right reason as- lieve it. The least action which is in itself serts that all the notions of children's rights just has a far greater power of clearing the either to equal division, or any other spe- intellect than a world of discussion. And cial division of property, should be exploded, this action would be just, though Mr. Arand each case decided on its own merits. nold tries to confuse the matter by saying Now, we submit that in both these cases that it assumes a false and fanciful * right” Mr. Arnold is forgetting, in his scorn for a of children to be treated equally. It does narrow practical conception, the law that aj not assume this at all. It only says, in the single practical step, taken in the light, will absence of any better means of judging such produce more light for the future than any as parents have, in default of any decision amount of pains in bringing "a free play of theirs, — we have no reason to assume of consciousness” to bear on the ultimate that one child will profit more or less by the conditions of the question. Even admit-property than any other. And though we ting, — which is not certain, – that the plan may be superstitious, we do believe that this of universal endowment is natural and wise, little modicum of equitable action, on the - Mr. Arnold yet seems to concede that it part of the English Legislature, would do more to clear the cloudy British brain, than paniment of her station. Then if she wants the “ free play of consciousness,” even when to trick it out she has not the piquant wielded by a Matthew Arnold. On the trouble of hunting for bits of ribbon, of whole, while agreeing heartily with Mr. gauze, or of tinsel. Then again her doll is Arnold that we need a wider and fuller ap- horribly mechanical, and allows but small preciation of intellectual knowledge, we be- room for fancy. It may squeak and open lieve also that he has quite failed fairly to and shut its eyes, thereby preventing its estimate the peculiar and infinitely deeper proprietress from doing the conversation spell of the sort of knowledge which springs herself. But the meagre, starved present from right action, however narrow. The which the workman brings to his cottage knowledge which grows out of action is a or lodgings is differently cherished. It sort of knowledge with deeper roots and has twice as fine a life. Its 'mistress never infinitely more various suckers than the ceases prattling to it, will search and ranknowledge which grows out of “ a free play sack every corner for the dingy shreds of of consciousness," and Mr. Arnold does cotton that are to render the effigy magnifinot seem to us to catch its significance or cent in her eyes. Then it is not subject to the cause of it. If Mr. Carlyle makes an the whims which fine ladies take to their idol of action apart from knowledge, Mr. favourite even in their tenderest years. It Arnold makes an idol of knowledge apart is petted with a constant affection until from action ; and both seem to us to miss grime or accident obliterates its features, the vital relation between the two.
and in the end it is seldom subjected to a toasting at the bars of a grate — an experi
ment which has been known to tell unfaFrom The London Review. vourably on the countenance of a wax fig. PATHETIC TOYS.
ure. Poor children must indeed have a
good deal of imagination to enjoy the queer THERE are few sights more capable of things constructed for a penny or twopence bringing out a sentimental gush of thought to please them. than a glance into a shop in which toys are We have referred to Jack-in-the-box. sold for the very poor. These establish- Jack can be bought at a very low price or ments are to be found in low neighbour- a very high one, but the poor child gets hoods, and generally do not confine their better value out of him for the money than commercial operations to a single branch any toy we know of, except the doll. The 'of business. You see in the window, next entertainment he furnishes both at St. the wooden dolls, green bottles of sweet Giles's and St. James's is identical. He stuff, boxes of matches, candles, twine, and lives, as all the world knows, in a constant often a small pile of apples or some other state of compression, from which he is recheap fruit; inside will be found those tales leased by opening a wire hasp. He always and songs written for what Mr. Trollope surprises you ; that is his fun, and the one bas termed the unknown public, along with joke for which he has been made. His fewhistles, jews'-harps, and a few masks of a rocity to a little boy is something awfully hideous kind, which are supposed to be es- delicious. He has him securely fastened pecially attractive to the youthful mind. down, and that gives him a certain sense of
To children toys are as necessary as fresh power. It is a long time before he disbeair and exercise. The little creatures when lieves in Jack's whiskers and the energy of learning to talk appear to have a certain that spring of his. We have heard that the consciousness that grown-up people either first doubts on the subject arise when a boy laugh at them, or do not understand them; begins to think of Jack's legs, Jack pogwith a toy, however, they can be at once sessing a quaint organization in that refamiliar and at home. Jack-in-the-box is spect. Flowever, this toy is as democratic always ready to play with them, - a doll as the jewellery imported by Mr. Cole from never refuses her company, will submit to the Paris Exhibition - indeed, of the two, any amount of kissing, beating, or dressing, we should prefer the cheap Jack; he is genand, as long as the wax, cotton and bran erally of fiercer aspect than his more aristokeep together, will amuse her owner and re-cratic prototype, and the steel in him is main faithful.
stronger and stiffer. This may arise from But it is curious to note the difference some law of compensation not yet quite debetween a poor and a rich child in the treat-veloped. ment and management of dolls. To the Another favourite toy which is found in child lady the doll is a familiar presence. low as well as in high places is Noah's Ark. It bas not the charm of novelty or unex- It would be interesting to learn who first pectedness; she regards it as an accom- invented this. We suspect it must have