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- Well, Fanny,' said Mrs. Burdett, 'Ishort. The neighbourhood had not to refancy this will not be very pleasant; but it sent any previous disappointments concernis the right thing to do, on poor Stephen's ing him — he had not deceived any anxious account, and for mamma's sake.
mothers, or jilted any anxious daughters. • Yes, of course,' said Fanny; but do Julia's account of him was strictly correct you know, I don't think you will find it at — when he had ceased to be exclusively ocall unpleasant. Ned and I enjoy it im- cupied with his liver, he had fallen in love mensely.'
with her. He was known to be a rich - and • Indeed! I shall hardly make up my popularly and not erroneously believed to mind so quickly. Mrs. Stephen is a better- be a very rich — man, who had succeeded to mannered person than I expected.'
a fine property, being already possessed of • Is she not ? Quite wonderful, I think. a large sum in ready-money and consideraThings certainly might have been much ble business faculties. Such a man, with a worse.'
stake in the county, notions of hospitality And then the two ladies talked no more quite Indian in their magnitude, a large and about their sister-in-law. It was, indeed, well-regulated establishment, and a very remarkable that they continued to be very handsome and agreeable wife, who never rational about her. The fact was, Julia had disagreeable relatives staying with her had been too much for them, as she was for to take up her attention and require that of most people; had utterly disconcerted and other people, was of considerable social upset their ideas; and each had come se- value. In short, Julia Haviland carried cretly to the wholesome conviction that she every outwork brilliantly, and was now enhad been near doing a very impolitic and throned in the heart of the citadel. stupid thing, and had better reverse her Early in the winter season, Stephen Havposition as rapidly and as quietly as pos- | iland and his wife took possession of their sible. It was so much better not to talk house in Berkeley-square, which had been about it, so much less unpleasant not to fitted up for their reception in a style which have to make any amende to herself or her would have astonished all the dead-and-gone sister.
Havilands who had ever sojourned within Of course, I am delighted to have Selina the metropolis. It was not the custom of and Fanny with me,' said Mrs. Haviland to those days to pass the dreariest season of Julia, on the day following the arrival of the year amid the dreariest scenes; and if it the Burdetts; but,' she added timidly, had been, Julia would have set aside the and smoothing her daughter-in-law's band custom. She liked town in winter, and she with her own, with a movement half-ner- meant to live there. She had gone through vous, half-caressing, I hope you will not all the preliminaries to the life of pleasure, be less with me, my dear, because they are excitement, and social success which she here. I am very happy with you.'
had entered upon, with every sense of enIf I could bring Eliot Foster here,' joyment quickened to the utmost; and she thought Julia, “and let him see for himself had no notion of wasting any more time. how thoroughly I have carried out the pro- Every possible care had been taken to secure gramme he thought so far-fetched and im- the comfort and well-being of Mrs. Havipossible, I think he would have a better land, who was perfectly satisfied to be in opinion than ever of my head, and '- her town; and now the reality of the life for face softened a little as the thought com- which she had bargained with fate completed itself — not a worse opinion, on the menced for Julia Haviland. She would gain whole, of my heart.'
a firm footing in the world, and map her life Before the autumn came to a close, Ju- out thoroughly, before the full tide of socilia's success, not only in a domestic, Havi-ety should be pouring through the great arland point of view, but on the broader social teries of London. She had been happybasis of 'county' society, was complete. yes, certainly happy, if not quite satisfiedPeople stayed more at home in those days, down at Meriton; but she had always known when ' rushing about' was not at once epi- there was something beyond, to which she demic and chronic, and became more thor- was reaching. It was now within her grasp. oughly acquainted with their surroundings. Neither was she altogether sorry to lose The interval between whispering and gos- sight for a time of Hugh Gaynor. He insiping over Stephen Haviland's marriage, spired her with an uncomfortable feeling, pítying his mother, and wondering what which she was aware did not arise so much So-and-so would do about visiting his wife, from his knowledge of her, and of the past, and the general conviction that Mrs. Havi- as from the innate superiority of his mind, land was an extremely charming woman, from the calm indifference with which he reand quite an acquisition, was surprisingly I garded, as altogether uncalling for estimation, those things in which she took pleasure, said Stephen Haviland to his wife one day the objects of her life, the aims of her am- in February. bition. In spite of herself she was forced Has he?" she said; I am glad of it, to wish for his esteem, to feel an uneasy since he was so anxious. Where is the dread of his displeasure; in spite of herself place? she shrunk from the many silent evidences • Beckthorpe, a little way from Coventry which she perceived, that he held her lot - a filthy place, I should say, and likely to rather in compassion than in envy. That combine the vices and the misery of town she should not be regarded as the most en- and country.' viable of women stung Julia's pridė; and. He will get on splendidly, if it does not some superstitious feeling within her made kill him,' said Julia. her dislike, almost to the extent of fearing “And if it does, he will think that getting it, the knowledge that he deeply commiser-off splendidly,' said Stephen; so he's all ated her for the sorrow which she had never right, anyhow.' sustained. To a certain extent, her whole Time went on, and the Havilands throve life was a lie; why, then, did she feel so and prospered. Julia gained her heart's acutely that there was no shaking off the desire. She was rich, beautiful, courted, influence of it, the degradation of the one beloved, and the fashion.' The cup of specific falsehood which she had told him ? pleasure brimmed over for her; and though Why did she feel at times that she almost her husband had one sorrow, she did not hated him because the superior rectitude of share it. They had no children; but this his character had forced her to tell him that did not grieve her, and she did not even falsehood; and at others, that to be with pretend to feel with him in the matter. him was the best among the privileges af- Mrs. Haviland was inclined to do what for forded her by her successful venture in life? her was almost grumbling at the decrees of Who can tell ? Such a contradiction is not Providence. Julia, who never wavered or to be explained or aecounted for, except by failed in her fulfilment of the resolution she the general truth that in all natures there had made, that Stephen's mother should lurks, together with defiance, the germ of have no reason to lament his marriage, was the love of good, and the perception of its sometimes tried a little by the old lady's lovbeauty. Hugh Gaynor was to remain for ing regrets. some time longer at Burnham, to give his My dear,' she said to her once, it is not health a fair trial in the winter, before he that I care so much about children while again went in search of a field for his minis- they are babies, though they do brighten up trations. The rector, who gave his son up one's house and one's heart; but when one for incorrigible, and Mrs. Gaynor, who in- is old as I am, and all comfort and happiness vited a good-looking niece to the vicarage must come through the hands of others, I in hopes that prettiness and proximity might should like to think that when that time have such an effect upon Hugh as to coun- comes for you, long after I am gone, you teract what the good lady called his ‘non- would have a son to be to you what Stephen sense,' were uselessly angry at his intention is to me, and to give you a daughter like of again leaving home. They did not know yourself.' where he would go to - some horribly un- But these were slight things after all healthy place, no doubt; he had talked of very little spots in such a full, blazing, tropthe weavers being an interesting class, in-ical sun of prosperity. Nor was Julia at telligent and consumptive, and that there all likely to exaggerate them. She did was not a vacancy at present; but he was not; she measured and weighed all that life in correspondence about a curacy or some-brought to her accurately, and enjoyed it to thing at Coventry. So spoke his mother, the full. And she knew that she had won vexed and vague. But he was still at Burn- the exact prize she had striven for, and found ham when Julia went to London, and she in it all she had expected, even though she saw him once or twice in the course of the sometimes paused in the course of her proswinter. In the early spring he completed perous career to contemplate it, and to think, his arrangements, and left Burnham." not with sadness or discontent, but with
Hugh Gaynor has got the poor, dirty, conviction, 'It glitters, but it is not gold.' and ignorant clientèle he wished for, Julia,'|
From The Cornhill Magazine. But there is another circumstance besides GREAT SOLAR ECLIPSES.
proximity to the earth which affects the On the seventeenth of August there will moon's apparent dimensions. She appears occur the most remarkable solar eclipse that to grow larger as she rises above the horihas taken place within historic times, or that zon. We are not referring, of course, to the will take place for many hundred years. A appearance she presents to the naked eye. black shadow upwards of 140 miles in di- Judged in this way she scems to grow ameter, surrounded by a penumbra 4,000 smaller as she rises above the horizon. But miles wide, will sweep from the eastern parts when she is measured by any trustworthy of Africa across the Arabian Sea, the In- instrument the reverse is found to be the dian peninsula, and the East Indian Archi- case. The cause of the peculiarity is not pelago - à distance of more than 8,000 far to seek. We see the moon, not from miles. The Royal Society and the Astro- the centre of her orbit (that is, the earth's nomical Society have sent out expeditions, centre), but from a point on the earth's surwell supplied with telescopes, spectroscopes, face, –a point, therefore, which is four polariscopes, in fact, with all the appli- thousand miles nearer to the moon's orbit. ances of modern astronomical science, — to Accordingly, if the moon were directly overtake advantage of so favourable an opportu- head (which never happens in our latitudes) nity for obtaining an answer to the interest- her distance from us would be diminished ing questions respecting solar physics which by 4,000 miles, and she would look proporhave been suggested by the phenomena of tionately larger. The sun is not affected former eclipses. A particular interest is in this way, because four thousand miles is attached to the inquiry in consequence of a mere nothing in comparison with the enorremarkable discoveries which have been mous distance at which the sun is removed made during the past few years by direct from us. Accordingly, other things being examination of the solar orb. The whirling equal, the higher the moon is at the time of motion of the solar spots; their strange pe- a total eclipse, the greater is the eclipse. riodicity; the singular association which ex- In order, therefore, that an eclipse may ists between this periodicity and the period- be as great as possible, the sun should be icity of terrestrial magnetic variations; the as far as possible from the earth, which hapsuspected influence of the planets upon the pens about the beginning of July; the moon solar atmosphere; these and many other should be as near as possible to the earth, singular discoveries await interpretation, which happens (roughly speaking) once in and a strong impression prevails among as- every lunar month; and the sun and moon tronomers that the solution of these prob- should be almost immediately overhead, lems will be hastened if the observation of which can only happen at midday in tropical the great eclipse should prove successful countries. It will readily be conceived how
Among the total eclipses recorded during seldom these conditions can be fulfilled (in historic times, there are some which stand coinbination with the other conditions which out among the rest on account either of their determine the occurrence of an eclipse at magnitude or of the historical interest asso- all). In fact it has never yet happened that ciated with them. We propose to give a any very close approach has been made to brief account of the more remarkable solar the simultaneous fulfilment of all the coneclipses whose records have been preserved. ditions. Before doing so, however, it may be well to But, in the coming eclipse, two of the point out the circumstances on which the conditions will be almost exactly fulfilled, magnitude of a solar eclipse depends; and and the third pretty nearly so. The moon will to explain why it is that so few eclipses oc- be so near that her apparent diameter will cur which deserve to be ranked among great only fall short of its greatest possible value total eclipses.
by about one-thousandth part. At the time The average apparent dimensions of the of greatest eclipse (which happens when the sun exceed those of the moon. But both black shadow is traversing the East Indian bodies vary in apparent magnitude - the Archipelago) the eclipsed sun will be less moon more than the sun. Perhaps many of than three degrees from the point immediour readers will be surprised to learn that ately overhead; and, lastly, the sun's appawe receive fully one-fourth more light from rent diameter will be very much smaller some full moons than from others, owing to than it is when he is at his mean distance the variations of her apparent magnitude. from the earth. Accordingly, when she is at her largest, and We proceed to discuss a few of the most the sun at his smallest, she is able to hide remarkable eclipses recorded by ancient him wholly from our view, and considerably historians. overlap his disc all round.
| It is rather singular that no eclipses are recorded in the Bible. There have been | 100 feet high ; its circumference two parasome astronomers who have imagined that sangs; it was built of burnt brick, on a the “ going back of the shadow upon the dial foundation of stone twenty feet high. of Ahaz" was caused by a partial eclipse of When the Persians conquered the Medes, the sun. But this supposition seems too the Persian king besieged this city, but was fanciful to be admitted, even if it were the unable to capture it till a cloud hid the sun case that a partial eclipse could have wholly from view, when the inhabitants caused the retrogression of the shadow. withdrew in great fear, and the city was We are told distinctly that the “going captured.” Zenophon mentions that the back of the shadow" was a miraculous, not Greeks, after passing Larissa, reached a natural event; and even if this were not another deserted city called Mespila. Layso, or if we might infer that it was the pro-ard has identified Larissa with the modern phet's foreknowledge of an approaching Nimroud, where there still exist the very eclipse which constituted the miracle, yet it ruins described by Zenophon; Mespila he may readily be shown that no partial or to identifies with the modern Mosul. Of tal eclipse could produce the effects de course it is impossible to doubt that a total scribed. Such an eclipse undoubtedly eclipse of the sun, and not the mere concauses an irregularity in the motion of the cealment of the sun under a cloud, was the shadow on a dial; the shadow at first moves cause of the city's capture. The Astronomore slowly, afterwards more quickly, than mer Royal has shown that this interesting it would otherwise do, but it cannot pos- event occurred on May 19, 556 B. c. sibly go back.
Another eclipse has been examined by The first important eclipse whose records the Astronomer Royal, which has given have reached us is that which occurred in great trouble to historians. This is the the year 584 B. C. It took place, Herodc-eclipse which took place when Xerxes was tus relates, while the Medes and Lydians advancing with his army from Sardis to were engaged in battle. He thus describes Abydos. Herodotus relates that just as the occurrence:-“ The war had continued the army was setting forth the sun suddenly between the two nations with balanced suc- disappeared from its place in the heavens, cess for five years. In the sixth year of the though there were no clouds, and the sky war another battle took place; and after was perfectly clear; “ thus," says he, “the both sides had fought without advantage, day was turned into night." Mr. Airy, and when the engagement was growing however, refers this description to the total warm, the day was suddenly turned into eclipse of the moon, which took place on night. This had been foretold to the Ionians March 13, 478 B. c. No total eclipse of by Thales the Milesian, who predicted the the sun appears to be reconcilable with the time of the year in which it would happen. account of Herodotus, and therefore it The Lydians and Medes, seeing that day seems reasonable to infer that there is an had given place to night, desisted from error of some sort in his narrative. combat, and were equally anxious to make It is singular how often the occurrence of peace.” Astronomers and historians had a total eclipse is connected with the mililong been in doubt about the date of this re- tary and naval undertakings of ancient namarkable eclipse. The astronomical diffi- tions. Most of our readers must remember culty of the question is connected with an the narrative of the total eclipse which seriinteresting peculiarity of lunar motion, into ously threatened the success of the expediwhich we need not now enter. Until this tion of the Athenians under Pericles against peculiarity had been mastered, which has the Lacedæmonians. " The whole fleet only happened quite recently, Baily's sup- was in readiness, and Pericles on board his position that the eclipse must have occurred own galley, when there happened an eclipse in the year 609 B. c., was accepted as the of the sun. The sudden darkness was best solution of the difficulty. But the As- looked upon as an unfavourable omen, and tronomer Royal has now proved beyond a threw the sailors into the greatest consterdoubt that the eclipse took place on May nation. Pericles, observing that the pilot 28, in the year 584 B. C., the very year as- was much astonished and perplexed, took signed to the event by Cicero and Pliny. his cloak, and having covered his eyes with
Zenophon mentions a remarkable eclipse it, asked him if he found anything terrible in which led to the capture of Larissa by the that, or considered it as a bad presage? Persians. During the retreat which was so Upon his answering in the negative, Pericles ably conducted by Zenophon, the Greeks said, “Where is the difference, then, bepassed “a large deserted city called La-tween this and the other, except that somerissa, formerly inhabited by the Medes. thing bigger than my cloak causes the Its walls were twenty-five feet thick and leclipse?!"
But perhaps the most interesting of all when men were eating; and they lighted the problems with which ancient eclipses candles to eat by. That was the thirteenth have supplied our modern astronomers, is day before the calends of April.” (The that which is connected with what is termed worthy chronicler might as well have adthe eclipse of Agathocles. After his defeat hered to the more usual method of expressby the Carthaginians, Agathocles was be- ing the date.) “Men were very much struck sieged by them in Syracuse. But taking with wonder.” “The darkness became so advantage of a relaxation in the vigilance great,” he says elsewhere, “ that men feared of the blockading fleet, occasioned by the the ancient chaos was about to return, and approach of a fleet which had been sent for on going out, they perceived several stars his relief, he quitted Syracuse, and passing around the sun." over into Africa, waged for four years a Amongst all the eclipses hitherto mensuccessful war against the Carthaginian tioned there is only one — viz. the eclipse of forces. It is related by Diodorus Siculus Thales - which is comparable with that of tbat the voyage to Africa lasted six days, August 17. And among more recent eclipses and that on the second day of the journey there is only one other approaching it in an eclipse occurred, during which the dark- magnitude. This eclipse, which occurred ness was so great that stars became visible on June 17, 1433, was visible in Scotland, in all directions. There can be no doubt, and was long remembered in that country therefore, that the eclipse was a total one. as “the Black Hour." It occurred at about But it has been found difficult to reconcile three o'clock in the afternoon, and the recthis account with the calculated path of the ords preserved respecting it relate that nothmoon's shadow during the only total eclipse ing was visible during the height of the which corresponds with the historical and totality. Professor Grant considers that chronological details of the event. Baily's “ this last remark is a manifest exaggeracalculation of the eclipse threw the shadow tion." Be this as it may, there can be no about 200 miles from the most southerly doubt that the eclipse was one of unusual position which can possibly have been at- extent, for the mathematician Maclaurin tained by Agathocles on the second day of found that " at the time of its occurrence his journey from Syracuse. The labors of the sun was only two degrees from perigee, the Astronomer Royal, founded on im- the moon not more than thirteen degrees proved tables of the lunar motions, have from apogee." But neither in this eclipse been more successful; and he has shown nor in that of Thales did the totality last so that the northern limit of the zone of total long as it will during the approaching eclipse. shadow must have passed some seventy or In 1598 another total eclipse occurred eighty miles south of Syracuse - a distance which was visible in the British Isles. The which might readily have been traversed by day of the eclipse was remembered for a Agathocles within the time named.
long time afterwards as Black Saturday. It is related by Philostratus in his Life In a similar way the day of the total eclipse of Apollonius, that a singular phenomenon of 1652 was named Mirk Monday by the preceded and announced the death of the people of Scotland, and although the eclipse Emperor Domitian. “A certain crown, has long since been forgotten, the expression resembling the Iris, surrounded the sun's is still used in many parts of that country. disc and hid bis light." We cannot doubt It is singular that none of the eclipses we that reference is here made to a total eclipse have recorded had led to any observations of the sun, and calculation shows that such of any value to the physical inquirer. Modan eclipse occurred in the year ninety-five ern eclipses, on the contrary, derive their of our Lord.
chief interest from observations of this sort. We pass to the records of eclipses which In the total eclipse of 1706, which was have occurred more recently
observed at Montpellier, and a variety of William of Malmesbury relates that the other places in Western and Central Europe, eclipse of August 2, 1133, presaged the the bright stars Aldebaran and Capella, and death of Henry I. “The elements shewed the planets Venus, Mercury and Saturn, their grief," he says, " at the passing away were visible to the naked eye. “Bats flew of this great king. For on that day the sun about as they do at dusk. Fowls and pighid his resplendent face at the sixth hour, in eons flew hastily to their roosts. Cage-birds fearful darkness, disturbing men's minds by were silent, and hid their heads under their his eclipse.”
wings. Animals at labour in the fields stood Seven years later another remarkable still.” Duillier relates that at Geneva the eclipse occurred which is thus referred to by Council were compelled to close their delibthe same writer: -“In the Lent the sun erations, as they could see neither to read and the moon darkened about noontide, nor write. “In many places people sell