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schools, and the farmers who had left their will be paid when due; yet the Democrats fields at the call of duty have gladly re- have thought that their advocacy of fraud af. turned to their proper occupation. The de- forded the best chance of retrieving their feat of the Confederates was so complete, lost popularity; and the Republicans shrank and so visibly final, that it was unnecessary from avowing their honest intentions in plain to keep on foot a great army to deter the and unmistakable terms. It was pointed out conquered enemy from renewing the war. at the time that the Chicago platform admitIn the absence of foreign danger or of do- ted of a sophistical interpretation; and Mr. mestic opposition, the troops were only re- STEVENS has lately informed Congress that quired for purposes of police; and the fleet, payment according to che letter and spirit which had been rapidly collected for block of the contract meant payment in greenbacks, ades and for operations on internal waters, or the discharge of a promise to pay by a was for the greater part dismantled and renewed promise. The Republican leader sold. A year or two ago the army was re- added that, sooner than consent to payment duced to fifty thousand men, and now Con- in gold, he would vote for SEYMOUR and gress, in consideration of the re-establish- BLAIR, though he denounces thein as rebels. ment of civil government in the majority of There can be little doubt that Mr. STEVENS the Southern States, has reduced the num and Mr. BUTLER will be followed, in spite ber by two-fifths. Thirty thousand men of the Chicago platform, by a large section will not be too many to guard the Indian of the party, for a majority of Republicans territories, and the cost of the force will be voted for the shameless project of a ten per insignificant. The Americans, amid many cent. tax on the interest of the bonds; and political blunders, deserve credit for discov- the more decorous Senate, notwithstanding ering that, as they are invulnerable, it is the manly protest of Mr. SUMNER, approved not worth their while to load themselves Mr. SHERMAN's plan for a compulsory rewith cumbersome defensive armour. One duction of interest under pretext of a volof their soundest arguments for prosecut-untary exchange of a bigher for a lower ing the war with the Confederate States rate. The Bill, as amended by the House, was deduced from the obvious necessity of restricts the interest on the new issue to maintaining a standing army if they had 3.65 per cent., although it is absurd to supconsented to recognise the independence of pose that the holder of a six per cent. Fivea formidable neighbour.

Twenty bond would submit, except under The vanity of Americans in believing compulsion, to a sacrifice of more than a themselves exempt from the consequences third of his interest. If repudiation preof crimes and blunders can alone explain the vails, it will be impossible to contract new probable repudiation of a large portion of loans; and foreigners, with the exception the national debt. As it is not payable for of creditors, have no reason to complain of many years to come, it would be far more the voluntary surrender of one of the condiprofitable to assume for the present that it' tions of American power.

LORD STANLEY announced on Thursday that an agreement binding them mutually to assist he was quite in accord with the American au- the museums of Europe in procuring casts and thorities and Mr. Seward as to the general prin- copies of national objects for the promotion of ciples which ought to govern our recognition of art." The agreement is drawn up in the form the rights of naturalization. This is comfortable of a treaty, but the articles are suggestions that to hear, and as regards Lord Stanley we can each country should establish a Commission to quite believe that if the question had been sub- secure copies, that all Commissions should inmitted to him during the lowest ebb of the Fed- terchange, and that the Princes should help. eral fortunes, he would have come to just the The idea is attributed to the Prince of Wales, same conclusions. But certainly some of his and is a very sound one; only we would venture colleagues have suffered a wonderful inward to suggest that as all these highly placed gentle change and conversion on this class of subjects. men are subjects, not invested with diplomatic From the fall of Richmond, American logic dates functions and not authorized to bind anybody, most of its persuasive force.

they should use terms not quite so strictly diplo Spectator, 18 July, matic, and publish their proposals in a form &

little less suggestive of State papers. THE Princes of most of the Royal families of

Spectator, 22 August, Europe, including all the five Powers, have signed !

No. 1269.-September 26, 1868.

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CONTENTS. 1. PENSÉES, . .

Good Words, .

770 2. Fifty YEARS HENCE, . .

Spectator, . . . 1 3. THE BLACK COUNTRY, . ..

. Spectator, .

774 4. INTELLECTUAL DISCIPLINE, . .

Saturday Review, . 776 5. SERMONS ON SERMONS, ON SERMONS, . .

Saturday Review,

778 6. THE GENESIS OF PRIGS, ..

Saturday Review,

780 NATIONAL PROSPERITY AND THE REFORMATION, ; . Saturday Review, 8. OBSCURE DISEASES OF THE BRAIN,

London Review,

786 9. RESPONSE, . .

Saturday Review,

787 ADDISON ON MILTON, .

London Review,

790 THE VIRGIN MARY,

London Review,

793 12. NAPOLEON AND Pius VII., ..

Saturday Review,

795 POEMS WRITTEN FOR A CHILD,

Saturday Review,

799 CARICATURE HISTORY OF THE GEORGES,

Saturday Review,

• 801 SENSATIONAL NOVELS, . . .

Spectator, .

804 RICHARDSON'S CLARISSA, . .

Saturday Review, . 805 17. THE UNITED STATES' CHRISTIAN COMMISSION,

Spectator,

· 808 18. A HOUSE OF CARDS. Part V., ..

Tinsley's Magazine, . 812 19. THE COUNTRY OF THE Lost CAUSE

Spectator, ** Title and Index to Vol. 98.

SHORT ARTICLES. NOTES ON THE PSALMs. By Albert Barnes, 811 | CINCHONA IN JAMAICA, . . . : 811 WESLEYAN CONFERENCE, . . . 811

POETRY.

• 770 LINES FOUND AMONG THE PAPERS OF MARY TROPICAL MORNING AT SEA,

OF Scots, . . o . . 821

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PENSÉES,

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PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION AT THIS OFFICE: HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE REIGN OF GEORGE II. These very interesting and

valuable sketches of Queen Caroline, Sir Robert Walpole, Lord Chesterfield, Lady Mary Wortley Montague, Pope, and other celebrated characters of the time of George II., several of which have already appeared in the LIVING AGE, reprinted from Blackwood's Magazine,

will be issued from this office, in book form, as soon as completed.
A HOUSE OF CARDS.
THE BRAMLEIGHS OF BISHOP'S FOLLY, by CHARLES LEVER.
OCCUPATIONS OF A RETIRED LIFE, by EDWARD GARRETT.
PHINEAS FINN, THE IRISH MEMBER, by Mr. TROLLOPE.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY
LITTELL & GAY, BOSTON.

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For "Eight DOLLARA, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year, nor where we have to pay countnission for forwarding the money.

Price of the First Series, in Cloth, 36 volumes, 90 dollars.
" " Second "

50 €
16 16 Third (6
The Complete Work,

96

240 Any Volume Bound, 3 dollars ; Unbound, 2 dollars. The sets, or volumes, will be sent at the expense of the publishers.

PREMIUMS FOR CLUBS. For 5 new subscribers ($40.), a sixth copy; or a set of HORNE'S INTRODUCTION TO THE BIBLE, un. abridged, in 4 large volumes, cloth, price sio ; or any 5 of the back volumes of the LIVING AGE, in numbers, price $10.

From Good Words.

He bowed His head in death to us,
PENSÉES.

That we might see His face.
For ever more the gifts of God are given,
Though laid up for a little while in Heaven.

To walk our world of sin and strife,

He left His home above;

For us He freely gave His life, Too lofty is his place in glory now,

And only asks our love. For hands like ours to reach and wreathe his

brow. A few poor flowers we plant upon his tomb,

Never mind the shadows, Watered with tears to make them breathe and

Ye are Children of the Light,

Bound for the land
bloom.

Where there's no more night!
Bethink ye, while the tears do run,
No Cloud would rise but for the Sun.

Fear not, fear not, O ye of little faith,
That He who brings to life can lead through

death.
Ah, me, how shall the lamp of life burn on,
When all that visibly fed the flame is gone?

Let me work now, for all Eternity
The thing which has been shall be still, and we With its immortal leisure waiteth me.
Shall find the lamp was fed invisibly.

No sighs, no weaknesses in that glad world
Look up, and lo ! our Doves of Earth but rise, Where yearning avails more than working here,
Transfigured into Birds of Paradise.

And to desire is to accomplish Good:
For wishes get them wings of power and range,

Rejoicing through illimitable life.
In grief the soul is taking root;
In joy it should be bearing fruit.

Sweet is the Bird of Light;

Sweeter the Bird of Night.
The dear ones who are worthiest of our love
Below, are also worthiest above.

Best strength is shaped from weakness passed

away, Before all men, dear Lord, I call Thee mine; As bones are built up out of Life's decay. Before all worlds, dear Lord, oh call me thine.

| Peace, Halcyon-like, to perfect faith is given, Thorns for the Saviour, for the Scourge sweet And it can float on a reflected heaven.

flowers The old world used to give: gurely its sight Grows clearer, or this kindlier Age of ours

The dandelion takes the daisy's place, Stands nearer to the mild Millennial light. And brings more gold, but lacketh all the grace.

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W

FIFTY YEARS HENCE.

771 From The Spectator. | tury was very like the eighteenth; why FIFTY YEARS HENCE.

should not the twentieth be like the twentyA PAPER we published last week, * headed first, the nineteenth being as exceptional a “ The Concentrated Progress of the World,” cycle as the first ? raises very naturally an oft-mooted question, There is, of course, and can be, no final

- whether the next fifty years can by possi- answer to that question, any more than there bility witness as great a change, political, can be a final answer to the question what social, and material, as the last fifty have any to-morrow may bring forth; for such seen? Old people who were just of age final answer could come only from a faculty when Waterloo was fought tell us constantly not belonging to man. There have been that we can scarcely imagine the difference stationary periods, and some of them have in every department of life between 1818 followed short cycles of advance, and it is and 1868; in manners, modes of living, no doubt true that we all forget too commeans of locomotion, and social tone; and pletely the slowness of human affairs, the ask if it be possible that an equal difference time it takes a new creed, or a new idea, or should exist between 1868 and 1918. Can a new invention to influence mankind. It there be another mechanical discovery equal is probable that Paganism in its classical to steam, an increase of wealth like that in- sense survived in corners of Italy till the troduced by manufactures, a social change tenth century, printing had been invented like the decease of feudalism, a political a hundred years before its result was felt advance in Great Britain like that which has by any large section of mankind, and gunsubstituted for the sovereignty of fifty fami- powder took centuries to kill the practice lies the sway of public opinion ? Steam, of wearing armour as a defence. The next the factory, the press, and philanthrophy fifty years may be years marked by almost have all, they say, been born, or at least infinitesimal change, by mere applications have all reached manhood within that pe- of the ideas already in existence; developriod, and they ask if it is possible that other ments, for example, of steam communicapowers, at once so new and so effective, tion without the discovery of any motor should again be discovered by the world. capable of superseding steam, of social Shall we not for the next half-century be changes so gradual as to be almost imperengaged in exhausting their effects, till the ceptible, of political changes which the hisfifty years to come will seem alike to our-torians of the future will scarcely deem selves and our posterity only a somewhat worthy of record. The question refers, tiresome conclusion to the fifty years which however, rather to possibilities than probahave preceded them, till the world has bilities, and the limit of possibilities is not once more in a manner stereotyped itself, so easy to fix. Listen to Sir James Simpand men have again come to believe that son, the Edinburgh surgeon, discoursing that which has been and is shall always be upon a single division of them, the possiWhat is the ground for believing, as most bilities discerned as probabilities by medimen do believe, that we are only on the ciners with imagination. threshold of change greater than any we “But that day of revolution will not probably have yet seen, for denying that we may be be fully realized till those distant days when on the threshold of one of those long lulls, physicians — a century or two hence - shall be those periods of immutability of which the familiar with the chemistry of most diseases ; world has seen and endured so many ? when they shall know the exact organic poisons What is there in steam, or electricity, or that produce them, with all their exact antidotes the rise of America, or the spread of Re- and eliminatories ; when they shall look upon publican and free thinking opinion which the cure of some maladies as simply a series of should indicate that new forces will be

lhe chemical problems and formulæ ; when they speedily. at work, that things will change,

shall melt down all calculi, necrosed bones, &c., that we shall not in 1968 be doing very

chemically, and not remove them by surgical

operations; when the bleeding in amputations much what we are doing now? Apart from

and other wounds shall be stemmed not by septio individual influences, the seventeenth cen

ligatures or stupid needles, but by the simple * Living Age No. 1267.

application of bæmostatic gases or washes ; when

the few wounds then required in surgery shall | Half the human race dies under three, perall be swiftly and immediately healed by the first ishes, that is, uselessly. There is no abintention ; when medical men shall be able to solute reason, again, why man should not stay the ravages of tubercle, blot out fevers and master electricity, or discover some other inflammations, avert and melt down morbid | motor the control of which would restore growths, cure cancer, destroy all morbific or individualism, which could be used, that is, ganic germs and ferments, annul the deadly in- by the sol

by the solitary worker, without so tremenfluences of malaria and contagions, and by these

dous a disparity between his strength when and various other means markedly lengthen out

| alone and his strength when combined with the average duration of human life ; when our

others under a more than military discipline. hygienic condition and laws shall have been

The discoveries of the last thirty years changed by State legislation, so as to forbid all communicable diseases from being communicated, which

| which have so indefinitely increased the and remove all causes of sickness that are re-power of men, have but slightly increased movable ; when the rapidly increasing length of the power of each man considered in his human life shall begin to fulfil that ancient proph- | heritage by himself. He can when seated ecy, the child shall die an hundred years old;' alone get little out of steam or electricity, - when there shall have been achieved, too, ad- and anything which increased his power vances in other walks of life, far beyond our pres when alone as much as when in combination ent state of progress ; when houses shall be built would probably change the whole aspect of and many other kinds of work performed by ma- society, would restorė, for example, to the chinery, and not by human hands alone ; when worker what it took from the capitalist. the crops in these islands shall be increased five The change would be almost as great as that or ten fold, and abundance of human food be

which in the sixteenth century destroyed provided for our increased population by our the superiority previously exercised by fields being irrigated by that waste organic re

| physical strength in battle. Again, we fuse of our towns which we now recklessly run off into our rivers and scas; when man shall

hardly know, we can scarcely guess, where have invented means of calling down rain at

the application of powers already used may will ; when he shall have gained cheaper and

end. Suppose it true, as many men of mark better motive-powers than steam ; when he shall in science believe, that the next great step travel from continent to continent by submarine may be in sea-going steamers, that interrailways, or by flying and ballooning through national communication may be accelerated the air.”

as internal communication has been, that we

may yet see New York brought within two Sir James is a bit of a poet, but apart days' journey of Liverpool. The probabilfrom his dream of a grand change in the ity is that in ten years every social condiaverage duration of human life, a dream tion now existing in Europe would have connected rather with his theological be- ceased to exist, that the millions who toil liefs than his scientific convictions, there is for others and on whose toil modern society nothing whatever in those sentences beyond is built would choose to toil for themselves, the range of fair 'scientific conjecture, and would precipitate themselves in a rush to they imply a vast change, nothing less than which all the movements of mankind have the general healthiness of Western buman-been trifles upon the New World. Supity, a disappearance of typhes, and cholera, pose the population of Britain and Germany and scrofula, and many another scourge of reduced to ten millions each, - a change the day, as complete and final as that of less in magnitude than that which has ocleprosy, or the Black Death, or scurvy. curred in many countries, — and those ten Why should not one disease vanish as well millions only retained by advantages as as another till the human race lives its al- great as the New World can offer, what lotted time in health, perhaps the greatest would all the changes of the past half-censwift advance that could possibly be made ? tury be to that? This may happen, even Any system of hygiene which approached without any application of Stephenson's persection would end infant mortality, and great idea, the one idea he never worked with it the greatest direct loss of power out, that if engineers, instead of trying to which now checks the progress of humanity. I increase the power applicable to driving

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