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mountain ranges separating it from the seacoasts, and on the north by mountains and the Gulf of Lingayen. Through the northeast and central portion flows the Rio Grande from the northern mountains southwesterly to the Bay of Manila, and near the western edge runs the only railroad on the island of Luzon, in a general southeasterly direction from Dagupan, on the Bay of Lingayen, to Manila. In this territory Aguinaldo exercised a military dictatorship, and with a so-called cabinet imitated the forms of civil government, having his headquarters at Tarlac, which he called his capital, and which is situated near the center of the western boundary of the plain.
The operations commenced in October involved the movement of three separate forces: (1) A column proceeding up the Rio Grande and along the northeastern borders of the plain and bending around to the westward across the northern boundary toward the Gulf of Lingayen, garrisoning the towns and occupying the mountain passes which gave exit into the northeastern division of the island. (2) An expedition proceeding by transports to the Gulf of Lingayen, there to land at the northwestern corner of the plain and occupy the great coast road which from that point runs between the mountains and the sea to the northern extremity of the island, and to proceed eastward to a junction with the first column. (3) A third column proceeding directly up the railroad to the capture of Tarlac, and thence still up the road to Dagupan, driving the insurgent forces before it toward the line held by the first two columns. These movements were executed with energy, rapidity, and success, notwithstanding the exceedingly unfavorable weather and deluges of rain, which rendered the progress of troops and transportation of subsistence most difficult.
On the 12th of October a strong column, under General Lawton, with General Young commanding the advance, commenced the northerly movement up the Rio Grande from Arayat, driving the insurgents before it to the northward and westward. On the 18th the advance reached Cabiao. On the 19th San Isidro was captured, and a garrison established; on the 27th Cabanatuan was occupied and a permanent station established there. On the 1st of November Aliaga and Talavera were occupied. In the meantime detachments, chiefly of Young's cavalry, were operating to the west of the general line of advance, striking insurgent parties wherever they were found and driving them toward the line of the railroad. By the 13th of November the advance had turned to the westward, and our troops had captured San Jose, Lupao, Humingan, San Quintin, Tayug, and San Nicolas. By the 18th of November the advance had occupied Asingan and Rosales, and was moving on Pozorrubio, a strongly intrenched post about 12 miles east of San Fabian. General Lawton's forces now held a line of posts extending up the eastern side of the plain and curving around and across the northern end to within a few miles of the Gulf of Lingayen.
On the 6th of November a force of 2,500, under command of General Wheaton, sailed from Manila for the Gulf of Lingayen, convoyed by ships of the Navy, and on the 7th the expedition was successfully landed at San Fabian with effective assistance from a naval convoy against spirited opposition. On the 12th the Thirty-third Volunteers, of Wheaton's command, under Colonel Hare, proceeded southeastward to San Jacinto, attacked and routed 1,200 intrenched insurgents, with the loss of the gallant Maj. John A. Logan and 6 enlisted men killed, and 1 officer and 11 men wounded. The enemy left 81 dead in the trenches and suffered a total loss estimated at 300.
In the meantime, on the 5th of November, a column under General McArthur advanced up the railroad from Angeles to Magalang, clearing the country between Angeles and Arayat, encountering and routing bodies of the enemy at different points, and capturing Magalang. On the 11th it took Bamban, Capas, and Concepcion, and on the 12th of November entered Tarlac, from which the enemy fled on its approach. Meantime parties, mainly of the Thirty-sixth Volunteers, under Col. J. F. Bell, cleared the country to the right of the line of advance as far east as the points reached by General Lawton's flanking parties. On the 17th of November McArthur's column had occupied Gerona and Panique, to the north of Tarlac. On the 19th, Wheaton's troops, and on the 20th, McArthur's troops, entered Dagupan.
On the 24th of November General Otis was able to telegraph to the Department as follows:
Claim to Government by insurgents can be made no longer under any fiction. Its treasurer, secretary of the interior, and president of congress in our hands; its president and remaining cabinet officers in hiding, evidently in different central Luzon
provinces; its generals and troops in small bands scattered through these provinces, - acting as banditti, or dispersed, playing the role of “Amigos,” with arms concealed.
Since that time our troops have been actively pursuing the flying and scattered bands of insurgents, further dispersing them, making many prisoners, and releasing many Spanish prisoners who had been in the insurgents' hands.
On the 23d General Young's column had reached Namacpacan, 30 miles north of San Fernando, in the province of Union, and passed north into the mountains; and on the 24th Vigan, the principal port of the northwest coast, was occupied by a body of marines landed from the battle ship Oregon. In the meantime the destruction of the organized insurgent power in central Luzon found a response from the natives of the province of Nueva Viscaya, offering their services to drive out the insurgents who were in possession of Bayambong, the capital of that province, upon which the insurgents army had been prevented from retreating by the disposition of General Lawton's forces, commanding the passes of the mountains; and which Lawton's troops were rapidly approaching
All these movements were accomplished under great difficulties owing to the almost impassable condition of the country. In the course of them, large quantities of insurgent supplies of all descriptions were captured, including stores of food, clothing, arms, munitions of war, quick-firing and Krupp guns, powder factory and arsenal, engineering tools, money, war department records, personal effects of officers, and numerous private dispatches.
It is gratifying to know that as our troops got away from the immediate vicinity of Manila they found the natives of the country exceedingly friendly, and both men and animals were able to live upon the country, and for considerable periods leave their supply trains behind, This was doubtless due in some measure to the fact that the Pampangos, who inhabit the provinces of Pampanga and Tarlac, and the Pangasinanes, who inhabit Pangasi nan, as well as the more northerly tribes, are unfriendly to the Tagalogs, and had simply submitted to the military domination of that tribe, from which they were glad to be relieved. This is emphasized by a report from Gen-eral Wheaton that he had been obliged to guard the mother and infant son of Aguinaldo to prevent the natives of Pampanga from killing them.
I submit herewith, marked “Appendix A," the cable dispatches received from General Otis since the date of his annual report of August 31, 1899, which briefly describe these various operations, together with other operations of interest, both on the island of Luzon and in the Visayan and southern islands, which I have not thought it necessary to set forth specifically in this report.
I think it proper to quote from a dispatch from General Otis of November 13, in which he says:
Our troops have suffered great hardships and have performed most severe service, but are reported in excellent condition and spirits. The enterprise and indomitable will displayed by officers never excelled.
And to refer to his dispatch of November 18, in which he quotes from General Lawton a tribute to the fortitude, endurance, and cheerfulness of his command.
Acknowledgments are due to the naval forces of the United States for their cheerful and efficient cooperation with the operations of the army on land upon many occasions.
Wherever the permanent occupation of our troops has extended in the Philippine Islands civil law has been immediately put in force. The courts have been organized and the most learned and competent native lawyers have been appointed to preside over them.
A system of education has been introduced and numerous schools have been established. It is believed that in the city of Manila a greater number of good schools, affording better facilities for primary instruction, exists to-day than at any previous time in the history of the city.
OPERATIONS IN CUBA.
On the 13th of December, 1898, the Division of Cuba was created, consisting of the geographical departments and provinces of the island of Cuba, with headquarters in the city of Havana. The division was placed under the command of Maj. Gen. John R. Brooke, who, in addition to the command of the troops of the division, was directed to exercise authority as military governor of the island. On the 1st of January, 1899, pursuant to the provisions of the protocol and the arrangements made by the evacuation commission, Spanish sovereignty was formally relinquished and the government of the island was transferred to the military governor as the representative of the President of the United States. On the 6th of February, 1899, the evacuation of Cuba was completed by the sailing of the last of the Spanish army from the port of Cienfuegos.
The United States forces stationed in Cuba at the time of the transfer of the control consisted of 1,004 officers and 22,827 enlisted men.
The retiring army left a large Spanish population, and the long war for independence had engendered an excited and bitter feeling between them and the Cubans. The country had long been with little governmental control, except that exercised in the immediate neighborhood of the troops who were about departing. The ordinary social restraints had been destroyed, the cities were crowded with thousands of refugees and reconcentrados,