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on veto.

sent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other

place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. Compensation. $ 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for

their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of Privileges. the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and

breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to, and returning from, the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall

not be questioned in any other place. Exclusion from No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was office.

elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either House during his

continuance in office. Revenue bills. $ 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Rep

resentatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as

on other bills. Passage of Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and bills.

the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President Proceedings of the United States ; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall

return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent

its return, in which case it shall not be a law. What orders, Every order, resolution or vote, to which the concurrence of the Sen&c. require President's ap

ate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a ques. proval. tion of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the United

States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations

prescribed in the case of a bill. Powers of Con- $ 8. The Congress shall have power gress.

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts, Taxes, duties, imposts, and ex- and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United

States ; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States :

To borrow money on the credit of the United States : Commerce. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several

States, and with the Indian tribes : Naturalization. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the Bankruptcies.

subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States : Money, To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix Weights, and Measures.

the standard of weights and measures : Counterfeiting. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and cur

rent coin of the United States : Post-offices. To establish post-offices and post-roads :

Patents and To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for Copyrights.

limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries :





To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court:

Courts. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, Piracy, &c. and offences against the law of nations :

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water :

To raise and support armies : but no appropriation of money to that Armies. use shall be for a longer term than two years : To provide and maintain a navy:


Government of To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and na

Forces. val forces :

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Un- Militia. ion, suppress insurrections and repel invasions :

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress.

To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such Seat of Govdistrict (not exceeding ten miles square) as may by cession of particular ernment. States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings. And, To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying in

Laws as to

Vested Powers. to execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

§ 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the Migration or States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited importation of

persons. by the Congress, prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight; but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, un- Habeas Corless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may re- pus. quire it. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

Attainder and No capitation, or other direct tax, shall be laid, unless in proportion to Ex Post Facto. the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. No State Exports preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

No money'shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of ap- Receipts and propriations made by law ; and a regular statement and account of the Expenditures. receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time,

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the Presents. consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

§ 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation ; Powers of grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money; emit bills of credit; States limited. make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and

and Trade.

Titles and


imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States ; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war, in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded,

or in such imminent danger-as will not admit of delay. Executive. ART. II. $ 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of

the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same

term, be elected as follows: Election of Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may President and Vice-President.

direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

[The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice

President.] * Electors of The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the President and Vice-President.

day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same

throughout the United States. Qualifications No person except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United of President.

States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been four

teen years a resident within the United States. Vacancy, how In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, ressupplied.

ignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be

removed, or a President shall be elected. Compensation. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a com

pensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive

* Altered and supplied by Art. 12. See Amendments, post, Art. xii.

As to treaties.

within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the follow- Oath of office. ing oath or affirmation:

“ I do solemnly swear, (or affirm,) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." $ 2. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the



navy Powers and of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called duties, as to into the actual service of the United States ; he may require the opinion, Army and Navy. in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the As to appointSenate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, ments. judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law. But the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may hap- As to vacanpen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall cies. expire at the end of their next session. $ 3. He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of

Other powers. the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. He may on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them ; and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper. He shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed ; and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

§ 4 The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the Unit- Impeachments. ed States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

ART. III. § 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested Judiciary. in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior ; and shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

§ 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more States, between a State and citizens of another State, between citizens of different States, between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, Jurisdiction of

the Supreme and those in which a State shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have

Court. original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations, as the Congress shall make.

Trial by jury. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by

jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law

have directed. Trenson. § 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying

war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and Evidence. comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testi

mony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open

court. Punishment. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, Attainder. but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture,

except during the life of the person attainted. The public

Art. IV. § 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the acts, &c. of

public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And States.

the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such

acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. Citizens' priv

$ 2. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and ileges.

immunities of citizens in the several States. Fugitives A person charged in my State with treason, felony, or other crime, from justice. who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on

demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be

delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. Fugitives

No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws therefrom labor. of, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation

therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered

up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. New States. $ 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union;

but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State ; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the legislatures of the

States concerned, as well as of the Congress. Territories. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules

and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as

to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State. Guaranties to § 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a States. republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against

invasion ; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when

the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. Amendments. Art. V. The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall

deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided, that no amendment, which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article ; and that no State, without its consent, shall

be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. Debts.

Art. VI. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United

States, under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. Supreme Law. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be

made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land: and the judges, in every State, shall be bound thereby, any

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