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CALVIN, t. God reveals to all mo- 1. The same doctrine iš ral agents, in some manner, taught in the Con. P. C. U. S. so much knowledge of him- Con. C. Scot. and Say. Plat. ch. self and their duty as to ren- 1. sec. 1.* Con. R. D. C. Art. 2. der them inexcusable for their and of the Protestant French sins.

churches, A. D. 1559. Calvin's Institution, Book 1.

ch. 3, passim. 2. “ To attain to God the 2. A revelation is necessary Creator, it is needful to have to give that knowledge of God, the scripture to be our guide.” and of his will, which is essen66 Therefore not in vain he hath tial to salvation. added the light of his word, Con. P. C. U. S. p. 1. Con. R. that thereby he might be known D. C. Art. 2. Say. Plat. p. 13. to salvation."

and Con. C. Scot. ch. 1. sec. l. Inst. B. 1. ch. 6. sec. 1. 3. The commonly received 3. The same doctrine is books of the Old and New Tes- taught in the Con. P. C. U. S.

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* The characters Con. P. C. U. S. are used for the Confession of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America: Con. C. Scot. for the Confession of the Church of Scotland, composed by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, A. D. 1643, and approved by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, A. D. 1647 ; which is now the standard, so far as the articles of faith are concerned, of all the different denominations of Sootch churches in America. Say. Plat. denote the confession of faith, called the Saybrook Platform, which was adopted by the churches in Connecticut, in New-England, A. D. 1708, printed 1710, and re-printed under the inspection of the General Association, in 1810. This was a copy of the Savoy Confession, which was adopted, by a general synod, convened in Boston, A. D. 1680. The Westminster Confession had been previously assented to, in 1648, by the unanimous vote of the Elders and Messengers, from the churches in Massachusetts, convened in Cambridge. Con. R. D. C. signify the Confession of the Reformed Dutch Churches, which was adopted by the Synod of Dortrecht, in 1619, and is now the standard of the Reformed Dutch Churches in America.





AND 1. It appears from the 51,52, 1.8 " The bare light of nature $ 53 pages, Vol. 1, of Hopkins' discovers only the supremacy System of Divinity, that he was of the Creator, and the dependof the same opinion.

ence of creatures."

Emmons' Ser. p. 27.* 2. « If mankind were with

2. The essential difference out all the light and advantages between virtue and vice may of a revelation, and traditions be known by those who are which originate from it, they wholly ignorant of God.” would not pay any regard to an

Emmons, p. 63. invisible, supreme being, oren- “ Men are capable of judging tertain any belief, or notion of what is right or wrong, in resuch a being; but would in spect to the divine character every sense, “ live without God and conduct." in the world.”

Emmons, p. 65. Syst. Vol. 1. p. 55. « Moral subjects as irresist

ibly obtrude upon the con

science, as visible objects do 3. Dr. Hopkins proves the upon


And a man can same scriptures to be divine, no more avoid seeing and befrom the credibility of the pen- lieving moral truths, than he

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* In all the quotations from Emmons, reference is made to his volume of sermons,

“ On some of the first principles and doctrines of true reli. gion,” printed at Wrentham, Massachusetts, A. D. 1800. It will be found upon a careful examination of the following pages, that Dr. Emmons is strictly Hopkinsian in most of his sentiments. He has taken the leading doctrines, which are exhibited in the system, for his guide in matters of faith ; and undauntedly pursued them, regardless of consequences. What Dr. Hopkins commenced, he has carried to perfection; and what that excellent man taught confusedly, he has inculcated in language too plain to be misunderstood. Of the two writers, the one of Franklin is certainly to be preferred, because he is more systematical in his arrangements, more thorough in his investigations, and more precise in his language, than the one of Newport. Dr. Emmons is a metaphysician who does not finch !

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CALVIN, taments are the word of God, p. 4 and 5. Say. Plat. p. 15. Con. which was written under the C. Scot. p. 28 and 29. Con. R. plenary inspiration of the Holy D. C. Art. 3, 4, 5 and 6. Also, Ghost; and which is proved to in the Confessions of the Gerbe of divine origin, by the an- man Protestants in the city of tiquity, dignity, unity and ex- Auspurge, A. D. 1530, of Basil, cellence of the writings; by in 1532, of the Waldenses in the integrity of the writers, mi- 1532, of Helvetia in 1566, of racles, prophecy, history, and France in 1559, and of the Eng. more especially by the inward lish Church in 1562. See « An testimony of the spirit. Harmony of Confessions, print

Inst. B. 1. ch. 7 and 8. ed in London, A. D. 1643. 4. The scriptures are the on- 4. “ The whole counsel of ly rule of faith and practice. God, concerning all things ne: By them we are to try every cessary for his own glory, man's spirit. “The Spirit of Christ salvation, faith and life, is either is given, not to guide men with- expressly set down in scripture, out the scripture, but accord- or by good and necessary coning to the scripture.” The Spi- sequence, may be deduced from rit and the written word must scripture." go hand in hand.”

Con. P. C. Ų, S.p. 6. Con. C. Inst: B. 9.* Scot. n. 30. Say. Plat. p. 16.

Con. R. D. C. Art. 5. And all the ancient Protestant Confessions.


* Much is said by the Hopkinsians, about the right and wrong in the nature of things; but Calvin considered the command of God to be the only foundation of right. His sentiments appear to have been the same with those expressed by that distinguished -philologist, JOHN HORNE TOOKE, in his “ Diversions of Purley." " * RIGHT," he says, “is no other than RECT-um, (regitum) the past participle of the Latin verb regere, from rego, to rule. Hence right signifies, that which is ruled or ordered. “ Thus, when a man demands his RIGHT; he asks only for that which it is ordered he shall have. A right conduct is that which is ordered.right road is, that ordered or directed to be pursued (for the object you have in view.) To do right is, to do that which is ordered to be done. To be in the right is, to be in such situation or circumstances as are ordered." In a religious view, therefore, that alone is right, which God has ordered us to perform. How then, can any pretend that the nature of things constitutes right and wrong? So far as the nature of things reveals what God has

66 The


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OTHERS. men, profane history, miracles, can avoid seeing natural objects, prophecy, the light which the when both are placed before Old and New Testaments re- his mind with equal plainness." flect on each other, the care of

Emmons, p. 77. Jews and Christians to preserve

3. « The divine Spirit sug. the sacred writings, the harmo- gested every word and thought ny which subsists between all to the holy penmen.” the parts, and the Godlike con

Emmons' Ser. 2. tents of the whole yolume.

Syst. Vol. 1. Part. 1. ch. 1. 4. “ This is a complete, un- 4. There is an essential dif. erring and perfect rule of faith ference between right and wrong and practice, and the only rule. in the nature of things, which This being understood and be- does not depend upon the dilieved, is sufficient to make men vine will, which God cannot dewise unto salvation; and we stroy without destroying the have no warrant to believe any nature of things; and which religious truth, unless it be re- all moral agents are capable of vealed, or can be supported by discerning without a revelation: the Holy Scriptures; and this therefore, “there is a propriety is the only rule of our duty." in every man's judging for him. System, Vol. 1. p. 45. self in matters of morality and


Emmons' Ser. 3.


enjoined upon man, so far it exhibits the difference between right and wrong, which are entirely dependent on the will of God. When we apply right to God, we cannot intend that he has a superior, or is commanded by the nature of his creatures. We say, “ God has a right, and God is right, or RIGHT-eous.” We intend, that he might with propriety act upon such moral principles as he has commanded us to regard; or that his dealings are analogous to those which he has enjoined upon his rational creatures. He is right or RIGHT-eous, when he acts according to his own rule. His perfections may also be said, figuratively, to require, or command a certain course of conduct; and in this sense, the attributes of Jehovah are to him the rule of right. “Shall not the judge of all the earth do right ?" Will not God speak the truth, fulfil his promises, and do good ? Will he not obey the laws prescribed by his own character? Will he not conform to those moral rules, by which he has required his offspring to regulate their conduct ?



OTHERS. 5. The natural powers of the 5. The same doctrine is mind, as well as the affections taught, in the Con. C. Scot. ch. of the heart are so corrupted, 1. sec. 6. and ch. 10. sec. 1. Say. that men cannot savingly under- Plat. p. 16 and 41. Con. P. C. stand the scriptures without a U. S. p. 7, 54, 199 and 349. divine illumination of the un. Con. R. D. C. Canon 3. Art. 1. derstanding, as well as a renok The latter confession of Helpation of the heart.

vetia teaches, that the under.
Inst. B. I. chap: 4, 5, 6. standing has suffered such a

depravation as to render illumi-
nation necessary to the discern-

ment of divine truth.
6. It is our crime, that we 6. By“ a due use of the or-
want natural power," to climb dinary means,” the learned and
up unto the pure and clearknow- the unlearned might obtain a
ledge of God,” by the reading sufficient understanding of the
of the scriptures.

Inst. B. i. ch. 5. sec. 14. Con. C. Scot. ch. 1. sec. 7.

Con. P. C. U.S. p. 8. Say. Plat.

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7. The written revelation is 7. The confessions say the now completed, and other reve- same. Con. C. Scot, ch. 1. sec. lations are not to be expected. 6. Say. Plat. p. 16. Con. P. C.

Inst. B. 1. ch. 9. U. S. p. 6 and 7.





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CALVIN, 1. « There is one indivisible 1. There is but one only, liv, divine essence, which is unbe- ing and true God, say all congotten, absolutely of itself and fessions. That there is a God without beginning."

we know by the creation, preInst. B. 1. ch. 13. sec. 25. servation and government of


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