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ROPKINS,

AND

OTHERS. An honest and good heart; “The scripture represents a single eye ; a renewed mind; God, as not only making men an illuminated soul; a new willing to be saved, but as maheart; a wise and understand- king them willing by an act of ing heart ; an heart to know his power.' “ He not only God; and disinterested affec- addresses their eyes and ears, tions, are all synonymous ex. by external objects, and their pressions. In like manner, a understanding and consciences, blind mind, an evil eye, a hard by moral motives ; but he acand stony heart, a darkened un- tually operates upon their derstanding, unrenewed hearts, and there produces new temper, and self-love, all signi- feelings or affections, by the fy the same thing, even selfish same almighty power, which affections.

he exerted in creating the Syst. ch. 4. of Part 2. sec. 4 world, and in raising Christ and 5. passimo

from the dead. Nothing short of this can be meant, by his raim sing men to spiritual life, making them new creatures, and working in them that which is well pleasing in his sight."

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* The following passages are supposed to favour the idea of calling the sinner, by creating his willingness to be saved. " Thy people shall be wil. ling in the day of thy power." “I will give you an heart of flesh, and cause you to walk in my statutes." “ Now he that hath wrought us for the self same thing is God." “ That ye may know what is the hope of your calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, and what the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power ; which he wrought in Christ Jesus when he raised him from the dead.” “ You hath he quickened, who were dead.” “ We are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works.' He is a new creature.” “He who hath begun a good work in you, will perform it." “ Worketh in you both to will and to do.'* Working in you

that which is well pleasing." “God gave the increase."

See Note C. at the end of this chapter.

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CALVIN,

OTHERS. “ Our question is not here “By the outward ordinances, how diversely Christ draweth as our Lord makes the reprous unto him, or prepareth us to bate inexcusable, so, in the powthe endeavour of godliness : er of his spirit, he applies unto only this I say, that there can be the elect effectually, all saving no uprightness found where graces purchased to them in reigneth not the Spirit which the covenant of redemption, Christ received to communi. and maketh a change in their cate the same to his members.* persons. In particular, 1, He Then, according to the saying doth convert and regenerate of the Psaimist, (Ps. cxxx. 4.) them, by giving spiritual life to with thee is mercifulness, that them, in opening their underthou mayest be feared.' No standings, renewing their wills, man will ever reverently fear affections and faculties, for give God, but he that trusteth that ing spiritual obedience to his God is merciful unto him : no commands. 2. He gives them man will willingly prepare him- saving faith, by making them, self to the keeping of the law, in the sense of deserved condembut he that is persuaded that nation, to give their consent his services please him : which heartily to the covenant of grace, tenderness in pardoning and and to embrace Jesus Christ unbearing with faults, is a sign of feignedly. 3. He gives them fatherly favour. Which is also repentance, by making them showed by that exhortation of with godly sorrow, in the haHosea, Hos. vi. 2. “Come, let tred of sin and love of rightus return to the Lord, because eousness, turn from all iniquity he hath plucked us, and he will to serve God.” heal us : he hath stricken us, Sum of Saving Knowledge and he will cure us.”

Head 4. in Scot. Con.
Inst. B. 3. ch. 3. sec.2. t

* See note A at the end of this chapter. The Calvinists believe, that in effectually calling rational beings, who have the power of volition, God deals in a rational way; so that without creating volitions immediately, all the elect are infallibly brought to hate iniquity and love holiness. The divine influences operate upon the man, who is to be called into God's marvellous light, through the instrumentality of appropriate means. These means of effectual calling, are denominated means of grace. For a description of these, see at the end of this chama ter, Note B.

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HOPKINS,

OTHERS. It is the design of the preach- “Some suppose, that there are ing of the gospel to show sin- various ways, in which God can ners the duty of immediate and make sinners willing to be saperfect holiness; to convince ved, without any immediate them of their great wickedness; operation upon their hearts. and teach them what they must But it appears from fact, that realiy do, by their own volunta. this is the only way, in which ry act. Being acted upon, they even omnipotence can bring must exercise disinterested them to a cordial compliance love, repentance and faith, or with the gospel." perish. “ And when men en

Emmons, f. 359, 300, 361 and joy the gospel, God opens the 362. hearts of whom he pleases." “ By common grace, God inIn view of gospel truths, God vites and commands men to accreates holy exercises of re- cept salvation, and makes them pentance and faith, in some who feel their obligation to submit could, but otherwise never to the terms of life. But by would believe and obey. special grace, God actually in

Syst. Vol. 2. Part 2. ch. 4. clines their hearts to embrace sec. 9.

Jesus Christ freely offered to “ The divine operation in them in the gospel. God usualregeneration, of which the new ly exercises common grace toheart is the effect, is immediate, ward sinners, long before he or it is not wrought by the en- makes them the subjects of ergy of any means as a cause of special grace. He often emit; but by the immediate power ploys every mode of moral suaand energy of the Holy Spirit. sion, a great while, before he It is called a creation, and the puts forth an act of his power divine agency in it, is as much to make them willing to be without a medium, as in

saved.". ting something from nothing.

Emmons, N. 666. Men are not regenerated, in the sense in which we are now considering regeneration, by light or the word of God.

Syst. Vol. 1. p. 536.

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NOTE A.

ON THE APPLICATION OF REDEMPTION.

The elect sinner, for whose sins Christ made satisfaction, and for whose person he purchased salvation, is, at the time appointed in the counsels of peace, apprehended of the Saviour by the Holy Spirit, and so quickened in Christ, that he, who was once dead, embraces the Lord of glory, for his righteousness and strength.

According to the covenant of grace, Christ takes this sinner, claiming him for his own ransomed property, and infuses, by his Spirit, a new, spiritual principle of life Christ unites himself to the sinner by his quickening Spirit, and the sinner unites himself by faith to the Redeemer. This union is reciprocal, because the parties concerned are mutually united; and spiritual, because it is effected by the Holy Ghost. It is also called mystical, because it is an inexplicable fact, which is asserted in divine revelation: but it is not more mysterious than the union between matter and mind; between divinity and humanity in Christ; or between the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost in one God. head.

That the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are one God ; that two whole, perfect, and distinct natures are united in the one person Jesus Christ'; and that believers are members of Christ's mystical body, are three mysterious facts, to which God in the scrip. tures bears testimony. These three mysterious doctrines, taught in divine revelation, are above our comprehension, but not contrary to our reason. They are the cardinal points upon which every other part of the system of truth depends, and against which every error, in a greater or less degree, militates.

Deism, polytheism, and atheism, are directly opposed to the first, and consequently to the other two. Judaism, Arianism, Sabellianism and Socinianism, are directly opposed to the second, and consequently to the first and third. All the error's and confusion of doctrines which prevail among Christians, excepting on the questions which relate to the external order of the church, militate against the third ; and if carried out, consistent

1 ly, to their full length, would also indirectly oppose the two first mysteries.

The formation of the covenant of grace immediately rests on the Trinity ; and the fulfi ment of the conditions of that covenant on the hypostatical union ; while the application of the benefits purchased depends entirely on the mystical union between Christ and the redeemed sinner.

Upon these principles proceeds the arrangement of the doctrines in the Westminster Standards. " The union which the elect have with Christ is the work of God's grace, whereby they are SPIRITUALLY and MYSTICALLY, yet really and inseparably, joined to Christ as their head and husband; which is done in their effectual calling." Larger Car. Q. 66. « We are made partakers of the redemption purchased by. Christ, by the effectual application of it to us by his Holy Spirit.” Shorter Cat. Q. 29. “The Spirit applieth to us the redemption purchased by Christ, by working faith in us, and thereby uniting us to Christ in our effectual calling." Shorter Cat. Q. 30. See also Larger Cat. Q. 58.

This doctrine of a spiritual and mystical union is explicitly taught in the holy scriptures. “ I am the vine, ye are the branches; he that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without me ye can do nothing." John xv. 5. “ Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word ; that they all may be one ; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may one in us." “ And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them ; that they may be one, even as we are one." John xvii. 20, 21, 22. “ We are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones.” " This is a great mystery; but I speak concerning Christ and the Church.” Eph. v. 30 and 32.

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On this mystical union it is important that every believer should insist, because upon it depends the whole doctrine of the

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