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OTHERS.

HOPKINS, made a moral agent, capable of produce his own volitions, than moral exercises, through the his own existence.” “It is in agency of the Deity upon his vain to attempt to account for heart : these were all benevo- the first sin of the first man, by lent, disinterested, or holy; and the instrumentality of second in this consisted the image of causes." “ It is extremely difGod, in which he was created. ficult to conceive, how he It was a moral image. His should be led into sin, without heart was love.

the immediate interposition of Syst. Part. I. ch. 5. 'the DEITY."

."* Emmons' Ser. 12.

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* Dr. Hopkins asserts in like manner, that holiness and sin are a part of the creation of God. The principal part of ch. IV. Part I. of his System, is devoted to the support of this doctrine. " Who does not now see that God may determine, order and cause moral evil to take place, and in this sense, create it, consistent with his infinite holiness and goodness, if this be necessary for the greatest good of the whole, both moral and natural ; yea, that God could not be infinitely wise and good, if, on this supposition, he did not order and cause it to take place ?" Vol. I. p. 186.

Those persons, who are so unguarded in expression, as to say, that God is the author of sin, or creator of moral evil, would do well to remember an anecdote, which has found its way to this side of the Atlantic. It conveys in a parabolical manner very severe reproof.

An elderly gentleman, it is said, was seated at the door of his country mansion, near the Land's End, when he saw a ghastly, grim, black personage crossing his manor. Stop, stop, you black monster, and give an ac, count of yourself. How came you here ?"

I am leaving the country, let me pass unmolested.
“ Whither do you betake yourself? Tell me, or you cannot pass."
I am going to New-England ; let me go, and I will never return.

“ But stay, sir, are you not his Majesty's subject! Why, then, do you quit the kingdom?"

I am dissatisfied with my residence here ; for if any evil is done in either of the three kingdoms, it is charged to my account ; but in New-England men charge all their sin upon their Maker. Having thus spoken, he pulled off his cap, and girded high around him his sable robe. The long ears and cloven foot made the inquisitive lord of the manor shrink back with horror. Away fled the Devil to the sea coast. What form he assumed, when he engaged his passage, and while on his voyage, is not related; but it is thought that he entered New-England in the form of a lean, bald-headed, philosophical Arminian, who obtained a country parish, became very studious, and published heresy under the specious title of Calvinism,

CHAPTER V.

OF PROVIDENCE.

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CALVIN,

OTHERS. As the decrees of God are According to WITsius, the universal, extending to all be- decrees of God are sovereign, ings, actions, and events, so the eternal and immutable ; and diProvidence of God is universal, yine providence is co-extensive and extends as much to a spar. with the divine counsels. “We row, as the government of the deny that any decree of God dèworld.

pends on a condition : if the Inst. B. 1. ch. 16 and 18. thing decreed be suspended on

a condition, the condition itself

is at the same time decreed.” Those things, which, in res. “If any decree of God could be pect to man are said to happen, changed, it would be because do not take place by fortune or God either would not or could chance.

not effect the thing decreed, or B. 1. ch. 16. sec. 8, 9. because his latter thoughts were

wiser or better than his first: “ They who give any thing all which are injurious to God. to fortune, do bury the provi- You will answer; God indeed, dence of God, by whose secret wills what he has decreed to be counsel all successes are go- done, but on condition the creaverned. Things without life, ture also wills it, whose liberty although each of them have he would no wise infringe. I their natural property planted in answer, is God so destitute eithem, yet do not put forth their ther of power, or of wisdom, force, but so far as they are di- that he cannot so concur with rected by the present hand of the liberty of second causes, God; which is proved by the which he himself gave and sun;" which regularly rises, but formed, as to do what he wills, stood still for the space of two *without prejudice to, and condays, and whose shadow went sistently with their liberty ?” back on the dial by the divine

Economy of Covenants, B. 3. command.

ch. 4. sec. 25.
B. lich. 16. sec. 2, 3. « God the great Creator of all

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CHAPTER V.

OF PROVIDENCE.

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OTHERS.

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state.

HOPKINS, “ Divine providence consists 66 Divine Providence consists in preserving, directing and in God's agency.” “ Providence governing, all creatures and is in its nature always the same, things which are made ; or in let the events produced be what taking the most wise and effect- they may. It is always the diual care of them, so as to make vine agency." them answer the end for which Massachusetts Missionary they are created.”

Magazine : edited by several Syst. Vol. 1. p. 243. distinguished divines of that God upholds all things by a continued creation, and governs “ The happiness of God dethe material system by exerting pends upon his effecting what his energy, according to stated he desires and chooses. What rules, or fixed laws. When God desires and chooses, he God acts upon any being in an desires and chooses with all his unusual manner, or so as to heart and soul, with all his mind counteract or interrupt his fix. and strength.

He ever pered laws of nature, that provi- ceives what he ought to desire dence is called a miracle. Syst. and to choose, respecting every Vol. 1. p. 244.

« In the exer- creature and every event. And cise of this divine providence, his desire and choice respectsome events take place by the ing every thing is wisest and

immediate energy and best. In proportion to the agency of God ; and others by strength of the divine desires, the instrumentality and agency and the wisdom and rectitude of creatures, and by various me- of the divine choice, must be diums, and what are called se- the pleasure of God in gratifycond causes. But in ali the 'ing his desires, and his satisfacevents of the latter kind, the tion in effecting his chosen divine hand, power and energy, purposes.” “God clearly and

" is as really and as much con- fully perceives the end from cerned and exerted, and is real- the beginning. He has suffily as evident, and as much to be cient wisdom to form the best acknowledged, as if no instru- purposes, and to devise, and

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CALVIN,

OTHERS. “ Solomon doth easily re- things, doth uphold, direct, disconcile the purposes of men pose, and govern all creatures, with the providence of God. actions and things, from the For as he laugheth to scorn greatest even to the least, by their folly, who boldly do under- his most wise and holy Provitake anything without the Lord, dence, according to his infallias though they were not ruled ble fore-knowledge, and the by his hand ; so in another place free and immutable counsel of he speaketh in this manner: his own will, to the praise of the * The heart of man purposeth glory of his wisdom, power, jushis way, but the Lord doth di- tice, goodness and mercy.” rect his steps ;' meaning that Con. C. Scot. ch. 5. sec. I. we are not hindered by the eter- Con. P. C. U. S. p. 25. Say. nal decrees of God, but that un- Plat. p. 26. Con. R. D. C. Art. der his will we may both pro- 13. “We believe that all things, vide for ourselves, and dispose both in heaven and in earth, and all things belonging to us." in all creatures are sustained B. 1. ch. 17. sec. 4. and governed by the providence

of this wise eternall and omnipotent God.” “ Wherefore condemn the Epicures who de

nie the providence of God, and “ The doctrine concerning all those, who blasphemously God's providence, doth not es- affirme, that God is occupied tablish Stoical destiny, but ex- about the poles of heaven, and cludeth heathenish fortune and that he neither seeth nor rechance."

gardeth us, nor our affaires."

Latter Con. Helvetia.

66 Nor is violence offered to “ The providence of God the will of the creatures, nor is doth not abolish but establish the liberty or contingency of sethe means, by leaving the end cond causes taken away,

but only certain to itself, to us un- ther established.” Con. C. certain.'

Scot. ch. 3. sec. 1. Con. P. C. U. B. 1. ch. 17. sec. 4. S. p. 17. Say. Plat. p. 21.

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* The pious,

“ neither for the time past will murmur against God for their adversities, nor lay upon him the blame of wicked actions, as Aga'memnon in Homer did, saying, I am not the cause, but Jupiter and fate;

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HOPKINS,

OTHERS. ment, agent, or second cause employ the best means for efwere used, or had any concern fecting his designs." in the matter. Because the declares,' the end from the becreature or the instrument, has ginning, and from ancient times no power to act or effect any the things that are not yet done, thing, independent of God, or saying, my counsel shall stand, which is not given to him by and I will do all my pleasure.' Gud. And is in the hand of God causes every creature, eveGod, as the ax or saw is in the ry action, every volition, every hand of the workman. This is desire, and every event to be the light in which divine reve- what he pleases and what he lation every where

represents decrees.” the providence of God.”

Williams, p. 139, 140, 141, Syst. Vol. 1. p. 146, 147. 142.

The providence of God could All power is in God, and all not extend to moral agents if creatures which act, or move, they were not acted upon ; nor exist and move, or are moved regulate moral actions if they in and by him."*

were not produced by a positive Syst. Vol. 1. p. 244. influence of the Deity.

Emmons' 9th Ser. et passim.

•Contingent or uncertain events may be conjectured, but cannot be foreknown.”

Mass. Miss. Magazine,

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aor yet, again, as carried away with destinies, will they by despair throw themselves into destruction, as that young man in Plautus, who said, “ Unstable is the chance of things: the Fates drive men at their pleasure: I will get me to some rock, there to make an end of my goods and life together.” Neither yet, (as another did) will they pretend the name of God to palliate and cover their own mischievous actions ; for so saith Lyconides, in another comedy, 'God was the mover : I believe it was the will of the Gods; for if it had not been their will, I know it should not so come to pass.B. I. ch. 17. Şec. 3 of Calvin's Inst.

* The Calvinists consent to the proposition, that all physical motion takes place by the physical power of God. If a stone falls, or rolls on an inclined plain, God moves it. If a thousand wheels revolve in some complicated machines, God moves each one. But thought and wolition are improperly compared to mechanical motion. The Calvinists are, therefore, of opinion, that God does not govern moral actions by a mechanical application of

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