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HOPKINS,

OTHERS. from eternity predestinated to from his kingdom, God stood damnation; and thus by his by him and moved him to purprovidence he executes his de- sue after them, with increased cree of reprobation.

malice and revenge. And what Syst. Part. 1. ch. 4. passim. God did on such particular ocGod is as much the author casions he did at all times." of sinful as of holy volitions, and

Emmons, f. 387. the professed Calvinist who denies this is not so consistent with himself as the Arminians. By immediately acting upon

Syst. Vol. 1. p. 197. the heart with energy to pro“ Calvin, and the Assembly duce the volition, God produof Divines at Westminster, as- ces every sinfulact; and in this sert that the divine decree and manner from the beginning to agency, respecting the exist- the end of his life, does God ence of sin, imply more than a reprobate every sinner, who is bare permission, viz. something lost. positive and efficacious.” Those Emmons, 10th and 16th Sera are not Calvinists “ who hold to mons ; and Williams, passim. only a bare permission."*

Syst. Vol. 1. p. 215.

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* To talk about bare permission, where God, as a punishment, blinds and hardens, says Calvin, is weak. His view of the providence of God in reprobation, is summarily exhibited in B. 4. ch. 4. séc. 3, 4 and 5. In evil motions of wicked men God worketh after two sorts ; the one by withholding his grace, whereby they might be moved to good; the other by using the ministry of Satan to stir, frame and incline their wills.” “Where as when his light is taken away, there remaineth nothing but darkness and blindness : whereas when his Spirit is taken away, our hearts wax hard and become stones ; whereas when his direction ceaseth, they are wrested into crookedness, it is well said that he doth blind, harden and bow them from whom he taketh away the power to see, obey and do rightly. The second manner, which cometh near to the property of the words, is, tha for the executing of his judgments by Satan the minister of his wrath, he both appointeth their purposes to what end it pleaseth him, and stirreth up their wills, and strengtheneth their endeavours.” In this manner he hardened Pharaoh, Sihon, and the wicked Israelites. B. 4. ch. 4. sec. 3 and 4. To say that the spirit from the Lord, which influenced Saul and others was the Holy Ghost is blasphemy. B. 4. ch. Arsec. 5.

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CALVIN,

"OTHERS. 4. The blame of all bad ac- 4. Men are altogether blametions belongs to man and the de- able for their bąd actions, bevil : the praise of all good ones cause « God hath endued the entirely to God.

will of man with that natural Inst. B. 2. ch. 5. sec. 2. and B. liberty that it is neither forced, 2. ch. 1. sec. 1. B. 2. ch. 2. sec. 3. nor by any absolute necessity of

nature determined to good or evil.” Con. C. Scot. Con. P. C. U.S. and Say. Plat. ch. 9. sec. I. But to man belongs no praise, to God is due all the glory, of every good work, because all ability to will and to perform good is wholly of the special grace of God. Con. P. C. U, S. Con. Co Scot. and Say. Plat. ch. 16. « It is through his grace that he crowns his gifts.”

Con. R.D.C. Art. 24..

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CHAPTER VIII.

OF THE APOSTACY AND ITS CONSEQUENCES.

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OTHERS.

CALVIN, Adam sinned through unbe- « Our first parents, being lief. He was tempted by Eve; left to the freedom of their own who had been tempted by the will, through the temptation of Devil, in the form of the ser- Satan, transgressed the compent. 6. For Adam would ne- mandment of God in eating the ver have been so bold as to do forbidden fruit; and thereby fell against the commandment of from the estate of innocency God, but for this, that he did wherein they were created.”

Larger Cat. Q. 21. Shorter Cat. Q. 1-3 and 15.

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OTHERS. 4. Nevertheless, although 4. Men act freely while actGod by his providence does ed upon, and therefore deserve create all volitions, yet men are praise or blaine, according to as praise-worthy for good ones, their exercises. “Qur depend. and as blame-worthy for bad ence on the Deity cannot deones, as they could be were prive us of moral freedom.” they independent, or were there 66 Reason and common no God in heaven. And the have different offices." reason is obvious, for men will know by reason that we are dewhat they will, and choose what pendent, and know by common they choose, as much as were sense, that we are active." their acts of will not caused im- Hence all know that their acmediately by God. He.creates tions are their own, and not the in them a choice, or he makes actions of God. them will.

Emmons, p. 219, 220 and 228. Syst. Vol. 1.1. 206 and 217.

6 We

CHAPTER VIIL

í

OF THE APOSTACY AND IFS CONSEQUENCES.

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OTHERS.

HOPKINS,
To effectuate the apostacy,

66 Adam's first offence was, God in his providence made use some way or other, the occasion of the Devil, who by the same of the universal sinfulness of agency took possession of a ser- his future offspring. And the pent, and by this subtle animal question now before us is, how. tempted Eve, so as to produce his sin was the occasion of an unholy volition in her heart. ours.” 16 1. Adam did not She again was used as the in- make us sinners, by causing us strument to produce a selfish to commit his first offence." disposition in Adam; because “ Nor can we more easily be

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OTHERS not believe his word."* He < By this sin they fell from disbelieved the threatening, and their original righteousness, 80, to become like God, he and communion with God, and touched, he tasted, he fell. so became dead in sin, and whol.

B. 2. ch. 1. sec. 4. ly defiled in all the faculties and This was a most detestable parts of soul and body. They act, and kindled the vengeance being the root of all mankind, of God against all mankind. the guilt of this sin was impuThe immediate effect of Adam's ted, and the same death in sin sin was the death of his soul, in and corrupted nature conveyed a spiritual sense, and the loss to all their posterity, descendof the image of God. “ There- ing from them by ordinary fore, after that the heavenly generation. From this original image in him was defaced, he corruption, whereby we are utdid not alone suffer this punish- terly indisposed, disabled and ment, that in place of wisdom, made opposite to aļl good, and strength, holiness, truth and wholly inclined to all evil, do justice, (with which ornaments proceed all actual transgreshe had been clothed) there sions. This corruption of nacame in the most horrible pes- ture, during this life, doth re. tilence, blindness, weakness, main in those that are rege. filthịness, falsehood, and injus- nerated : and although it be tice, but also he entangled and through Christ pardoned and drowned his whole offspring in mortified, yet both itself, and the same miseries.

all the motions thereof, are truThis is the corruption that ly and properly sin. Every sin, cometh by inheritance, which both original and actual, being the old writers called original a transgression of the righteous sin, meaning by this word, sin, law of God, and contrary therethe corruption of nature, which unto, doth, in its own nature, before was pure and good.” bring guilt upon the sinner,

B. 2. ch. 1. sec. 4 and 5. whereby he is bound over to the

* As the image of God was lost through unbelief ; so the same image is restored by faith. This faith cometh by hearing. " Therefore Bernard doth rightly teach that the gate of salvation is opened unto us, when at this day we receive the gospel by our ears: even as by the same windows, when they stood open to Satan, death was let in,” Inst. B. 2. ch. 1. sec. 45

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HOPKINS, God always originates volitions lieve, 2. That he made his posin us, in view of motives. The terity sinners, by transferring consequences of eating of the to them the guilt of his first forbidden fruit were, I. An transgression.” Guilt is a perimmediate 'spiritual death, for sonal thing and can no more be they fell into complete ruin : transferred than action. and this was the death threaten- was unjust in the nature of ed: and, 2. A total depravity things that the Supreme Being of heart.* They lost all their should transfer the guilt of love to God, all their disinter. Adam's sin to his posterity. ested affections; and thus were Hence we may safely conclude, deprived of the image of God, that the guilt of Adam's first who is love. As all the trees sin never transferred.” and plants were included in the “The doctrine of imputation, first trees and first seeds, so all therefore, gives us no ground men were created and compre- to suppose, that all mankind hended in the first man, so that sinned in and fell with Adam, hisobedience or transgression in his first transgression; or should affect all mankind as it that the guilt of his first sin was, affected him. “By the con- either by him, or by the Deity, stitution and covenant with transferred to his posterity. Adam, his first disobedience Nor can we supposegt 3. That was the disobedience of all Adam made men sinners, by

was

* Calvin teaches, that man had the supernatural gifts of faith, the love of God, the love of man, with a principle of progressive holiness and righteousness, which were entirely lost by the fall, and which are wanting in every natural man. He had also the natural powers of understanding and will, which were not blotted out, but together with the body were vitiated, so that he is subject to blindness of mind and iniquitous desires. B. 2. ch. 2. sec. 4, 12, 16, and B. 2. ch. 1. sec. 8, 9, 10, 11.

† The opinion we form of our own character, say the friends of this modern system, will depend on our idea of sin. Should we discover that we were born, with an original defect in the construction of our minds, and constitution of our animal faculties, we should feel that we were unfortunate, or miserable, but not guilty beings. Should we on the contrary find, that there is no sin, but in moral action, no sin impersonal ; that all have been active, while acted upon by a divine impulse, that all have become filthy, and have ruined themselves, we should be without excuse.

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