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are made clear. The literature on pen- almost wholly within the last ten years sions now at the disposal of the Foun- in states where there are no state unidation is probably the most complete versities, of subsidizing institutions in the statement of such problems that that are under private control. In a has ever been brought together, and number of states this process has gone the discussion here made cannot fail on until it has enormously increased to be of value to a college, a State; or the number of privately controlled in
industrial association which is stitutions which share in state approstudying the pension problem; and the priations. So marked has this tendenpension problem today is one of the cy become that the question of state insistent problems of modern social appropriation to education without progress.
state control is one which ought now
to be frankly and squarely met. The second part of the report of
Under sham universities the report the Carnegie Foundation is devoted to
deals with conditions such as hold, for such subjects as the Educational
example, in the District of Columbia, matter of college enProgress
where commercial enterprises without trance requirements,
endowment or facilities are chartered admission to advanced standing, a
as educational institutions under the statement of medical progress, univer
loosest conditions, which enable them sity and college financial reporting, ad
to appeal to the credulity of ignorant vertising as a factor in education, edu
students throughout this and other cation and politics, and finally, sham
countries under high-sounding names universities. All of these subjects are discussed in the frank and specific and under the shelter of charters manner which has hitherto been used granted by the general government.
A bill now before Congress aims to in these reports. In recounting the
correct this situation. extraordinary medical progress of the
The endowment in the hands of the last five years attention is called to the connection which still exists in the trustees, last September, amounted to United States between reputable col- approximately $14,000,000, and the in
come for the year amounted to $676,leges and unworthy medical schools.
486, of which $634,497 was expended. The lessons of the recent Bulletin on
From its first pension payment in June, Medical Education in Europe are also
1906, to the end of the fiscal year Sepbrought clearly forward. During the
tember 30, 1912, the Foundation has last five years the mortality among un
distributed $2,077,814 in retiring allowworthy medical schools has been most satisfactory. The number of such
ances to professors and $238,590 in
widows' pensions-a total of $2,316,schools in the United States has been reduced by about one-third and the 404. In all 429 retiring allowances and
ninety widows' pensions have been number of students attending them by tion has occurred in exactly the places three at the expiration of temporary about one-quarter, and this diminu- granted, of which ninety-eight have
terminated through death and twentywhere it ought to occur-namely, in
grants, leaving 315 retiring allowances the elimination of the unfit. The section devoted to education
and eighty-three widows' pensions in
force at the end of the year. and politics discusses not only the recent remarkable changes in the University of Oklahoma, the University of In his recent annual report, SuperKentucky, and the University of Mon- intendent Brumbaugh of the Philadeltana, but also deals with two other
phia public schools
Relations of tendencies in political life which are
issues an invitation,
Home and profoundly affecting education: first,
which resolves itwith the rivalry which comes from
self virtually into a competing state institutions, and sec- plea for closer relationship and underondly with the practice inaugurated standing between the home and the school to the citizens of Philadelphia, devoting its time and energy to the calling upon them to pay frequent vis- questionable task of teaching all sorts its to the public educational institutions of things in the school, to the distinct that they may see for themselves what loss of definite and specific training in progress has been achieved toward cheer- what are usually known as the standful, sanitary, inviting surroundings, and ard elements of a curriculum. I have teachers, cheerful, sympathetic and "alert no doubt these criticisms arise from to touch the fountains of purpose and well-intentioned people, likewise from keen to guide the will of childhood into people who do not see the present the most vital and helpful sources of status of public school education and preparation for life.”
its bearing upon the problems of modThe report vigorously attacks "the ern society. The school is no longer heresy" that "the school has usurped an institution for the imparting of a the function of the home and those definite sum of restrictive knowledge. things which belong strictly and prop- It does not pretend to exhaust any one erly in the economy of domestic life field of intellectual enterprise or enhave swept over into the economy of deavor. It does not see itself as the the school life of the community.” The realizer of the type of training which Home and School Associations, with 50 years ago was considered to be their central organization, the league, adequate to the needs of society. repudiate this idea, the report declares. "The school of today visions its In line with this stand, Superintendent functions on a much broader and more Brumbaugh has this important decla- humane plane. It is distinctly and emration to make :
phatically endeavoring to train all of "We do not wish the public schools the child for a place worthy of itself to be day nurseries; we do not wish in the great economic and social and them to be the moral correctives of so- civic atmosphere in which it must live. ciety. We believe that certain definite Its function is to fit the child to be at things belong to the home and that the home with its environment, and to give home should never be allowed to dis- to it, not specific facts, but such a miss these from its vital obligations. training as will enable it easily to acOn the other hand, we do want the quire the necessary facts to perform school to be conversant with these things well its service to society as a whole. and to be consulted in the right in- It is an institution that creates an terpretation thereof and to see to it atmosphere in the life of the child, that that which the school ought not rather than an institution that drills to do, but which is vital to the welfare formal facts into the memory and unof childhood, shall be done by the home derstanding of the child. One cannot, and the church, to the end that these therefore, exclude from the school any three great agencies, working together element which in a large way condiand in complete sympathy and under- tions the activities of civilization tostanding, shall give to us in the last day, and these so-called 'fads' are as analysis the finest type of citizenship that vitally a part of the total discipline of we can vision."
an individual for life as are the old Possibly one of the most vital mat- inherited disciplines to which someters touched upon by Superintendent times undue allegiance is given. Brumbaugh, and certainly that to “We need in America not only which he has devoted the greatest trained workmen, but we need also space in his report, is the much-dis- contented, happy workmen, and we cussed "vocational education.” As the shall not rise to the plane of leaderofficial opinion of Philadelphia's edu- ship in the industrial competitions of cational head, the following paragraphs the race until we have given to our are of peculiarly timely significance: people not only an understanding of
"Once in a great while one hears the specific industrial problems, but that comment that the school is too largely wider and vastly more significant
equipment which enables them The questions discussed were: (1) sense the relative values of things The organization of the student employabout them and easily to find their ment and graduate appointment office. place in the large social, civic and (2) Is it desirable to have their work economic environment into which they conducted as a separate university demust enter. The versatility of the partment or a part of the Young mind is quite as important as the Men's Christian Association ? (3) content of the mind. The fundamental Should a fee be charged for services in qualities of honesty, and promptness, finding term time work for undergraduand neatness, and courtesy, and de- ates, permanent positions for graduates, pendableness, are quite as much an or teaching positions ? (4) What equipment for an industrial career as should be the attitude of the university is a knowledge of tools or the quotations employment office toward subscription of the market.
book and canvassing concerns? (5) Is "Moreover, with the undoubted ten- it desirable to have teaching, commercial, dency to shorten the vocational hours and student appointments conducted in of our people there arises increased one office? (6) In appointment work need for an education that will fit peo- particularly would it not be desirable for ple for their avocational hours. It is the various university offices to have a just as important, in the general sum- working agreement to transfer positions ming up of the effectiveness of a cit- in cases where the original office has no izen, that he should know how to available candidate? spend his leisure wisely and well as Professors F. W. Nicholson, of Wesit is that he should know how to work leyan ; W. H. Sallmon, of Yale; Morris acceptably. Likewise, it is not to be Gray, Harvard; W. J. Dugan, Cornell; disputed, in my mind, that a child must R. V. D. Magoffin, Johns Hopkins; Dana carry into his mature activities a body G. How, University of Pennsylvania; that has been trained and conserved Dean F. J. Randall, Brown; W. W. and is physically capable of carrying Bartlett, College of the City of New the stress and burden of mature years." York; and Malcolm Miller Roy, Colum
bia, were the conferees. The appointment and employment secretaries of nine eastern colleges and The second annual convention of the universities held
Middle West Physical Education and Conference of conference at Colum
Hygiene Association Employment bia University recent
Meeting of Physi- was held at the UniSecretaries
cal Education ly, and discussed the
versity of Chicago in ways and means of placing college grad
April. The memberuates in teaching and commercial posi- ship of the association includes repretions and safeguarding the interests of sentatives of public and private schools, students who have to work their way academies, colleges and universities of through college. Although definite ac- Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, tion was not taken, it was the consensus Michigan, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, of opinion that the exploiting of college Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas and other men as book agents and canvassers dur- states. ing the summer months should be dis- The sessions were devoted to demoncouraged as much as possible and that strations of methods of physical educathe college employment officers were tion. More than 1,200 children from best fitted to take up this important public and private schools, turner sociequestion. It was agreed that this work, ties, high schools and municipal playoften attractive, seldom turns out to be grounds of Chicago were used to illusas profitable as the claims of the con- trate exercise in physical culture for tract agents represent it to be, and that children of all grades. Prominent physmany students are fleeced of their money ical educators outlined their methods of as well as of their time.
instruction and practice exhibitions were
given by picked teams of the Interna- to be almost negligible in a hygienic tional Gymnastic union and by delega- school environment, except in regard to tions from Detroit, Milwaukee, St. the few easily fatigued individuals." Louis, Emporia, Kansas City, University of Wisconsin, University of Minne- A movement has been started in sota, University of Michigan, Iowa State Chicago to secure thorough examinaCollege and Normal School, Chicago
tion of the eyes of Teachers' College, Indianapolis, Gary,
Examination of the
public school chilSouth Bend and other places.
Eyes of School
dren. Mrs. E11a Children
Flagg Young superIf children are tired out at the end of intendent of schools, has projected a a school day, is it really because they plan somewhat similar to the one used
are fatigued by their Cause of Fatigue school work? Or is
at present by the dentists. At a recent
conference Mrs. Young urged the offiAmong School
it because they are Children
cers of the Illinois Association for the bored, or confined in Conservation of Vision and Prevention badly ventilated rooms, or because they of Blindness to get young oculists who have physical defects, or are not proper- would be willing to give part of their ly cared for at home? Professor W. H. time to the examination of school chilHeck, of the University of Virginia, has ` dren. All defects would be charted and been conducting experiments, first in sent to the parents. No oculist's name New York City and later in Lynchburg, would be used so that there could be no Va., with a view to determining how advertising. Where the parents are too fatigue influences the work of children poor or too indifferent to see the defects in school. A report of the New York are taken care of the name of the nearexperiment has been published as a mon- est dispensary would be given. ograph. The Lynchburg experiment is Mrs. Young urged that efforts be reported by Professor Heck in the April made to get the board of education to number of The Psychological Clinic. co-operate so that necessary supplies “An important consideration,” says Mr. and even free glasses could be provided Heck, "is the greater decrease in effi- where necessary, “Some children are ficiency shown by the boys than by the as greatly handicapped without glasses girls, this difference even being notice- as they are without books,” she said. able in the greater restlessness of the Mrs. Young asserted she believed most boys during the tests. Complete tables of the eye defects in the schools came of the sixteen class averages were made from working in subdued light. Winof the results by the boys and the girls, dow shades that pull down from the top and the general averages, percentages, are responsible, she said. etc., were calculated. The boys showed Dr. Parke Lewis, of Buffalo, said the an increase in quantity of 0.74 per cent thinking capacity of a child is retarded and a decrease in quality of 4.25 per cent; by visual defects. He urged fewer the girls showed an increase in quantity books for children and larger print. of 1.62 per cent and a decrease in quality of 1.96 per cent. The boys showed an That 80 per cent of the children in increase in quantity 0.4568 times that by country schools drink tea and coffee ; the girls and a decrease in quality 2.168
that 40 per cent of times that by the girls. The results of
Health Conditions them suffer from althe twenty-five-minute tests in Lynch
in Country Public Schools
most constant toothburg greatly strengthen the conclusions
ache; and that 19 to from the ten-minute tests in New York, 23 per cent have frequent headache; The decrease in efficiency must have been these are some of the facts brought out due in part to unhygienic conditions in by Dr. Ernest B. Hoag, of Minnesota, in school, home, and children; but however a personal visitation of the rural schools much of this decrease we attribute to of that State. To find exactly what fatigue, the fatigue is still so slight as health conditions in the Minnesota rural schools are, Dr. Hoag asks the simplest questions about health, by means of kind of questions, with astonishing re- which they keep informed as to the consults. “When I ask those who drink dition of the children intrusted to their coffee to stand up,” says Dr. Hoag, charge and are able to point the way to “nearly all the children arise. When I healthful living. ask how many have a toothbrush, nearly all say they have, but when I ask 'Did The development of a health instrucyou use it this morning?' there is little tion bureau in connection with the extenresponse.'
sion division of the Many of the children assumed that
Establishes Bureau University of Wis
of Health headache, earache, and other ailments
was authorwere perfectly natural things, and
ized by the regents seemed surprised that anybody should be of the university at their April meeting. curious about them. “Why, I always According to authority in medicine, hyhave headache,” they would say. Dr. giene, and vital statistics, including inHoag found that by simple questions surance actuaries, the average duration about the children's eyesight, the teacher, of human life can be prolonged fifteen without any optical tests at all, would years, if the present available knowledge discover that 20 per cent of her children is intelligently applied. The new health suffer from eye strain. From 12 to 14 bureau will undertake to carry out to per cent of the country school children the people of the state this knowledge. suffer from earache, and 4 per cent have Bulletins will be published on preventadischarging ears. “Adenoids, earache, ble diseases, infant mortality, rural hydischarging ears, deafness: that's the giene and similar subjects. Public lecorder we find over and over again,” says tures, instruction by correspondence, Dr. Hoag. “Four or five per cent of the health surveys, and public exhibits are children simply do not hear what is go- among the forms of dissemination of ining on and are therefore put down as formation that will be used by the extenstupid when they are not."
sion division in the new health bureau. The commonest principles of hygiene are frequently neglected. In one school It is only about twenty-five years since visited by Dr. Hoag, an old-fashioned Congress passed the Hatch act founding unjacketed stove had sent the thermome
the system of agriculter to the sizzling height of 90 degrees,
Agricultural tural experiment stawhile it was 10 below zero out-of-doors,
tions in this country.
Stations a difference of 100 degrees. The chil
The annual federal dren in the country are generally plenti- grant to each state is now $30,000, to fully fed, Dr. Hoag finds, but they do which the states themselves have in many not eat the right kind of food. People in cases added. Those less familiar with the country do not breathe pure air, be- the work often think of it solely as an cause, with abundance of it all about attempt to further the interests of the them, they carefully exclude it from practical farmer. The institutions were their houses by keeping the windows founded “to promote scientific investigatightly closed. These are some of the tion and experiment respecting the printhings have caused the country to lose its ciples and applications of agricultural reputation for good health as compared science;" but the scope of the work now with the city.
extends far beyond the boundaries of In order to remedy conditions, thor- the farm.
the farm. The lessons of this imposing ough medical inspection is desirable movement in agricultural research and where it can be had, but much can be education are manifold. The American done by the teacher herself without any experiment stations have demonstrated elaborate medical methods, according to the solidarity of the different sciences. Dr. Hoag. Teachers in the Minnesota Their successes have taught the importschools are provided with a “health sur- ant lesson that no one can foretell what vey” containing simple but fundamental beneficial results may develop from