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mercury. Some amalgams are found in nature - for instance, silver amalgams. Amalgams are used in considerable quantities in the arts. Thus the solubility of silver in mercury is taken advantage of for extracting that metal from the ore by means of amalgamation, and for silvering by fire. The same is the case with gold. Tin amalgam, which is incapable of crystallising and is obtained by dissolv. ing tin in mercury, composes the brilliant coating of ordinary looking-glasses, which is made to adhere to the surface of the polished glass by simply pressing by mechanical means sheets of tin foil bathed in mercury on to the cleansed surface of the glass.26 (See “The Nature of Amalgams,' by W. L. Dudley ; Toronto, 1889.)
2 I consider it appropriate here to call attention to the want of an element (ekacadmium) between cadmium and mercury in the periodic system (Chapter XV.) But as in the ninth series there is not a single known element, it may be that this series is entirely composed of elements incapable of existing under present conditions. However, until this is proved in one way or another, it may be concluded that the properties of ekacadmium will be between those of cadmium and mercury. It ought to have an atomic weight of about 155, to form an oxide Eco, a slightly stable oxide Ec.0. Both ought to be feeble bases, easily forming double and basic salts. The volume of the oxide will be nearly 17.5, because the volume of cadmium oxide is about 16, and that of mercuric oxide 19. Therefore the density of the oxide will approach 171-17.5 = 9.7. The metal ought to be easily fusible, oxidising when heated, of a grey colour, with a specific volume, about 14 (cadmium = 13, mercury = 15), and, therefore, its specific gravity (155+14) will nearly -- 11. Such a metal is unknown. But in 1879 Dahl, in Norway, discovered in the island of Oterö, not far from Kragerö, in a vein of Iceland spar in a nickel mine, traces of a new metal which he called norwegium, and which presented a certain resemblance to ekacadmium. Perfect purity of the metal was not attained, and therefore the properties ascribed to norwegium must be regarded as approximate, and likely to undergo considerable alteration on further study. A solution of the roasted mineral in acid was twice precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen, and again ignited; the oxide obtained was easily reduced. When the metal was dissolved in hydrochloric acid largely diluted with water, and the solution boiled, the basic salt was precipitated, and thus freed from the copper which remained in the solution. The reduced metal had a density 9:44, and easily oxidised. If the composition Ngo be assigned to the oxide, then Ng=145.9. It fused at 254°; the hydroxide was soluble in alkalis and potassium carbonate. In any case, if norwegium is not a mixture of other metals, it belongs to the uneven series, because the heavy metals of the even series are not easily reducible. Brauner thinks that norwegium oxide is Ny.Oz, the atom Ng = 219, and places it in Group VI., series 11, but then the feebly acid higher oxide, NgO3, ought to be formed.
Amongst the metals accompanying zine which have been named, but not authentically separated, must be included the actinium of Phipson (1881). He remarked that certain sorts of zinc give a white precipitate of zinc sulphide which blackens on exposure to light and then becomes white in the dark again. Its oxide, closely resembling in many ways cadmium oxide, is insoluble in alkalis, and it forms a white metallic sulphide, blackening on exposure to light. As no further mention has been made of it since 1882, its existence must be regarded as doubtful.
BORON, ALUMINIUM, AND THE ANALOGOUS METALS OF THE THIRD
If the elements of small atomic weight which we have hitherto discussed be placed in order, it will be clearly seen that, judging by the formulæ of their higher compounds, one element is wanting between beryllium and carbon. For lithium gives Lix, beryllium forms BeX2, and then comes carbon giving CX,. Evidently. to complete the series we must look for an element forming RX3, and having an atomic weight greater than 9 and less than 12. And boron is such a one ; its atomic weight is 11, and its compounds are expressed by BX3. Lithium and beryllium are metals ; carbon has no metallic properties ; boron appears in a free state in several forms which are intermediate between the metals and non-metals. Lithium gives an energetic caustic oxide, beryllium forms a very feeble base; hence one would expect to find that the oxide of boron, B,03, has still more feeble basic properties and some acid properties, all the more as CO, and N205, which follow after B,03 in their composition and in the periodic system, are acid oxides. And, indeed, the only known oxide of boron exhibits a feeble basic character, together with the properties of a feeble acid oxide. This is even seen from the fact that a solution of boron oxide reddens blue litmus and acts on turmeric paper as an alkali, and these reactions may be used for determining the presence of B20, in solutions. · By themselves the alkali borates have an alkaline reaction, which clearly indicates the feeble acid character of boric acid. If they are mixed in solution with hydrochloric acid, boric acid is liberated, and if a piece of turmeric paper be immersed in this solution and then dried, the excess of hydrochloric acid volatilises, while the boric acid remains on the paper and communicates a brown coloration to it, just like alkalis. .
Boron trioxide or boric anhydride enters into the composition of many minerals, in the majority of cases in small quantities as an isomorphous admixture, not replacing acids but bases, and most fre
quently alumina (A1,03), for as a rule the amount of alumina decreases as that of the boric anhydride increases in them. This substitution is explained by the similarity between the atomic composition of the oxides of aluminium (alumina) and boron. The subdivision of oxides into basic and acid can in no way be sharply defined, and here we meet with the most conclusive proof of the fact, for the oxides of boron and aluminium belong to the number of intermediate oxides, closely approaching the limit separating the basic from the acid oxides. Their type (Chapter XV.) R,0, is intermediate between those of the basic oxides R,0 and RO and those of the acid oxides R,05 and RO3. If we turn our attention to the chlorides, we remark that lithium chloride is soluble in water, is not volatile, and is not decomposed by water; the chlorides of beryllium and magnesium are more volatile, and although not entirely, still are decomposed by water ; whilst the chlorides of boron and aluminium are still more volatile and are decomposed by water. Thus the position of boron and aluminium in the series of the other elements is clearly defined by their atomic weights, and shows us that we must not expect any new and distinct functions in these elements.
Boron was originally known in the form of sodium borate, Na,B,07,10H,O, or borax, or tincal, which was exported from Asia, where it is met with in solution in certain lakes of Thibet ; it has also been discovered in California and Nevada, U.S.A. Boric acid was afterwards found in sea-water and in certain mineral springs. Its
I Borax is either directly obtained from lakes (the American lakes give about 2,000 tons and the lakes of Thibet about 1,000 tons per annum), or by heating native calcium borate (see Note 2) with sodium carbonate (about 4,000 tons per annum), or it is obtained (up to 2,000 tons) from the Tuscan impure boric acid and sodium carbonate (carbonic anhydride is evolved). Borax gives supersaturated solutions with comparative ease (Gernez), from which it crystallises, both at the ordinary and higher temperatures, in octahedra, con. taining Na B,07,5H,O. Its sp. gr. is 1:81. But if the crystallisation proceeds in open vessels, then at temperatures below 56°, the ordinary prismatic crystallo-hydrate B.Va,07, 10H.,O is obtained. Its sp. gr. is 1.71, it effloresces in dry air at the ordinary temperature, and at 0° 100 parts of water dissolve about 3 parts of this crystallo-hydrate, at 50° 27 parts, and at 100° 201 parts. Borax fuses when heated, loses its water and gives an anhydrous salt which at a red heat fuses into a mobile liquid and solidifies into a transparent amorphous glass (sp. gr. 2.37), which before hardening acquires the pasty condition peculiar to common molten glass. Molten borax dissolves many oxides and on solidifying acquires characteristic tints with the different oxides; thus oxide of cobalt gives a dark blue glass, nickel a yellow, chromium a green, manganese an amethyst, uranium a bright yellow, &c. Owing to its fusibility and property of dissolving oxides, borax is employed in soldering and brazing metals. Borax frequently enters into the composition of strass and fusible glasses.
? We may mention the following among the minerals which contain boron: cal. cium borate, (CAO)3(B.,0)(HO)6, found and extracted in Asia Minor, near Brusa ; boracite (stassfurtite), (MgO)6(B,0z),, MgCl.,, at Stassfurt, in the regular system, large crystals and amorphous masses (specific gravity 2.95), used in the arts;
presence may be discovered by means of the green coloration which it communicates to the flame of alcohol, which is capable of dissolving free boric acid. Many of the boron compounds employed in the arts are obtained from the impure boric acid which is extracted in Tuscany from the so-called suffioni. In these localities, which present the remains of volcanic action, steam mixed with nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide, small quantities of boric acid, ammonia, and other substances, issue from the earth. 3bis The boric acid partially volatilises with the steam, for if a solution of boric acid be boiled, the distillate will always contain a certain amount of this substance.
ereméeffite (Damour), AIBO3 or A1,0;B.,Oz, found in the Adulchalonsk mountains in colourless, transparent prisms (specific gravity 3:28) resembling apatite; datholite, (CaO)2(SiO2),B,0,,H,O; and ulksite, or the boron-sodium carbonate from which a large quantity of borax is now extracted in America (Note 1). As much as 10 p.c. of boric anhydride sometimes enters into the composition of tourmaline and axinite.
3 This green coloration is best seen by taking an alcoholic solution of volatile ethyl borate, which is easily obtained by the action of boron chloride on alcohol.
Jbis P. Chigeffsky showed in 1884 (at Geneva) that in the evaporation of saline solutions many salts are carried off by the vapour-for instance, if a solution of potash containing about 17-20 grams of K,CO; per litre be boiled, about 5 milligrams of salt are carried off for every litre of water evaporated. With LiąCO; the amount of salt carried over is infinitesimal, and with Na2CO; it is half that given by K.,CO3. The volatilisation of B,03 under these circumstances is incomparably greater-for instance, when a solution containing 14 grams of B,O3 per litre is boiled, every litre of water evaporated carries over about 350 milligrams of B,Oz. When Chigetfsky passed steam through a tube containing B,03 at 100°, it carried over so much of this substance that the flame of a Bunsen's burner into which the steam was led gave a distinct green coloration ; but when, instead of steam, air was passed through the tube there was no coloration whatever. By placing a tube with a cold surface in steam containing B.,Oz, Chigeffsky obtained a crystalline deposit of the hydrate B(OH); on the surface of the tube. Besides this, he found that the amount of B2O3 carried over by steam increases with the temperature, and that crystals of B(OH); placed in an atmosphere of steam (although perfectly still) volatilise, which shows that this is not a matter of mechanical transfer, but is based on the capacity of B,0; and B(OH); to pass into a state of vapour in an atmosphere of steam.
4 How it is that these vapours containing boric acid are formed in the interior of the earth is at present unknown. Dumas supposes that it depends on the presence of boron sulphide, B.S; (others think boron nitride), at a certain depth in the earth. This substance may be artificially prepared by heating a mixture of boric acid and charcoal in a stream of carbon bisulphide vapour, and by the direct combination of boron and the vapour of sulphur at a white heat. The almost non-crystalline compound B.,Sz, sp. gr. 1:55, thus obtained is somewhat volatile, has an unpleasant smell, and is very easily decomposed by water, forming boric acid and hydrogen sulphide, B2S3 + 3H20=B,03 + 3H S, It is supposed that a bed of boron sulphide lying at a certain depth below the surface of the earth comes into contact with sea water which has percolated through the upper strata, becomes very hot, and gives steam, hydrogen sulphide, and boric acid. This also explains the presence of ammonia in the vapours, because the sea water certainly passes through crevices containing a certain amount of animal matter, which is decomposed by the action of heat and evolves ammonia. There are several other hypotheses for explaining the presence of the vapours of boric acid, but owing to the want of other known localities the comparison of these hypotheses is at present hardly possible. The amount of boric anhydride in the vapours which escape from the Tuscan fumerolles and
If boric acid be introduced into an excess of a strong hot solution of sodium hydroxide, then, on slowly cooling, the salt NaBO2,41,0 crystallises out. This salt contains an equivalent of Na,O to one equivalent B,03. It might be termed a neutral salt did it not possess strongly alkaline reactions and easily split up into the alkali and the more stable borax or biborate of sodium mentioned above, which contains 2B,03 to Na,0.5 This salt is prepared by the action of boric saffioni is very inconsiderable, less than one-tenth per cent., and therefore the direct extraction of the acid would be very uneconomical, hence the heat contained in the discharged vapours is made use of for evaporating the water. This is done in the following manner. Reservoirs are constructed over the crevices evolving the vapours, and the water of some neighbouring spring is passed into them. The vapours are caused to pass through these reservoirs, and in so doing they give up all their boric acid to the water and heat it, so that after about twenty-four hours it even boils; still this water only forms a very weak solution of boric acid. This solution is then passed into lower basins and again saturated by the vapours discharged from the earth, by which means a certain amount
of the water is evaporated and a fresh quantity of boric acid absorbed ; the same process is repeated in another reservoir, and so on until the water has collected a somewhat considerable amount of boric acid. The solution is drawn from the last reservoir A into settling vessels B D, and then into a series of vessels a, b, c. In these vessels, which are made of lead, the solution is also evaporated by the vapours escaping from the earth, and attains a density of 10° to 11° Baumé. It is allowed to settle in the vessel c, in which it cools and crystallises, yielding (not quite pure) crystalline boric acid. At temperatures above 100°, for instance, with superheated steam, boric acid volatilises with steam very easily.
5 Metals, like Na, K, Li, give salts of the type of borax, MBO, or MH,BOz. A solution of borax, Na,B,O7, has an alkaline reaction, decomposes ammonia salts with the