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changes which seemed necessary to make the meaning of one
or two passages clearer.

The editor devoutly hopes that this edition will prove an
incentive to a renewed study of the Book, which, more than
any other, has influenced the great English-speaking peoples.

THOMAS M. LINDSAY.

ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF THE NEW
TESTAMENT

JOHN WYCLIFFE (b. 1324, d. 1384).—Translation of the Gospels,
and probably of the whole of the New Testament, forming part of
the first English translation of the whole Bible, the Old Testament
being partly the work of Nicholas Hereford. The translation was
made from the Latin or Vulgate, and dates from the later years of
Wycliffe's life.

The Wycliffite translation of the Bible was revised by John
Purvey, with the assistance of Nicholas Hereford, John Ashton,
John Parker, and Robert Swynderby, the work being completed
circa 1388.

The earlier version of the New Testament was printed in 1848,
from a MS. belonging to Lea Wilson; the later version was printed
by Lewis, 1731, and by Baber, 1810. Both versions of the whole
Bible were printed in 1850, under the editorship of Rev. Josiah
Forshall and Sir Frederick Madden.

A translation of the Wycliffe-Purvey New Testament into Scots
was made (circa 1520) by Murdoch Nisbet, and published by the
Scottish Text Society (1901, 1903).

WILLIAM TYNDALE (a. 1536).-Separate edition of the two Gospels
of S. Matthew and S. Mark were first printed by Tyndale at Ham-
burg, 1524, but no copy has been identified. In 1525 the printing of
his translation of the New Testament was begun by P. Quentall at
Cologne, but being interrupted Tyndale escaped to Worms with
the type, and there the first edition, in 4to., was completed by P.
Schoeffer. His translation was made from the Greek text as edited
by Erasmus. Only a fragment remains of this first edition, pre-
served in the Grenville Library. Second edition, 8vo., printed by
Schoeffer, 1525: only two copies, one imperfect, are known to
exist;1 1526, by Endhoven, Antwerp: no copy yet identified; 1527
and 1528-9, by Ruremund, Antwerp; 1530, supposed reprints by

1 Anderson (1862) says only one copy known. Given to Bristol
Baptist College.

Tyndale himself, with prologue to the Romans; Hans Luft, Mar-
burg (?); 1534, corrected version by Joye, widow of Christoffel of
Endhoven, Antwerp; the same year, Tyndale's own revised version,
by Emperowr, Antwerp, followed by others; further editions in
1535 and 1536, some being "once again corrected" by Tyndale.
The first of any English version of Holy Scriptures to be printed
in England was Tyndale's New Testament, 1536, by T. Berthelet,
printer to the King.

Tyndale's work is the basis of all subsequent translations.

MYLES COVERDALE (1488-1568). The whole Bible translated "out
of Douche and Latyn," 1535; printed at (?) Frankfort, (?) Cologne,
(?) Lubeck; another edition, 1550, printed by Froschover and A.
Hester, Zurich; re-issued, 1553.

MATTHEW'S BIBLE.-Edited by John Rogers; the name of Thomas
Matthew on the title-page not being fully explained. It includes
the translation of the New Testament by Tyndale; where it was
printed is uncertain (Antwerp, Lubeck, Hamburg?), but was
published by Grafton and Whitchurch, 1537. Another edition was
begun in Paris in 1538, with Coverdale as Corrector of the Press,
but the work was interrupted and finally finished in London, and
issued by Grafton and Whitchurch in folio form, 1539.

TAVERNER'S BIBLE.-A revised version of Matthew's Bible.
London, J. Byddell, 1539 (fol.), 1539 (4to.).

CRANMER'S BIBLE, or "The Great Bible."-Printed by Edward
Whitchurch, 1540 (fol.); 2nd edition, 1540 (Richard Grafton); 3rd
edition, 1541 (Whitchurch).

GENEVA BIBLE.-The New Testament appeared in 1557, printed
by Conrad Badius at Geneva, being a revision of Tyndale's transla-
tion by William Whittingham, an exile at Geneva. It was followed
by the issue, in 1560, of the whole Bible, translated anew from the
original. "The first Genevan, the first in Roman letter, the first
Bible in verses."

ARCHBISHOP PARKER's, or "The Bishops' Bible."-Folio, R.
Jugge, 1568.

ANGLO-ROMISH VERSION.-New Testament, Rheims, 1582. This,
with the Old Testament volumes published at Douay, 1609-10, has
been the standard version of Roman Catholics. The translation is

from the Vulgate.

KING JAMES'S BIBLE (Authorized Version).-Folio, 1611, by
Robert Barker, printer to the King.

REVISED VERSION, 1881.—Oxford and Cambridge University

Presses.

1 The Dict. Nat. Biog. says at Antwerp press, by Jacob von
Meteren. The B. M. Catalogue says that the larger types are
apparently identical with those of Emperowr in Tyndale's New
Testament of 1534.

AMERICAN VERSION." With the readings and renderings preferred by the American Committee of Revision." By Roswell D. Hitchcock, D.D., New York, 1881.

THE TWENTIETH-CENTURY NEW TESTAMENT. -A translation into modern English made from the original Greek (Westcott and Hort's Text). London, New York, and Chicago, 1902.

THE COMMON TRADITION OF THE SYNOPTIC GOSPELS IN THE TEXT OF THE REVISED VERSION, by Edwin A. Abbott, D.D., and W. G. Rushbrooke, M.L. Macmillan & Co., 1884.

THE HISTORICAL NEW TESTAMENT; being the Literature of the New Testament arranged in the order of its literary growth and according to the dates of the documents, by James Moffatt, D.D. Edinburgh, 1901.

THE NEW TESTAMENT IN MODERN SPEECH, by the late R. F. Waymouth, D.Lit., and E. Hampden-Cort, M. A. London, 1903.

For a good bibliography of the English New Testament, see Anderson's Annals of the English Bible (London, 1845), vol. ii, Appendix.

PROLOGUE

As it is written in Isaiah the Prophet :

The voice of one crying in the wilderness,
Prepare ye the way of the Lord,
Make His paths straight.

John baptized in the wilderness and preached the baptism of repentance, and all the land of Judea went out unto him and were baptized of him in the river Jordan.

He said: There cometh after me He that is mightier than I, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose. I baptized you with water: He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost.

Jesus came from Galilee and was baptized by John. He saw the heavens opened and the Spirit descending upon Him as a dove: and there came a voice out of the heavens:

Thou art My beloved Son;

In Thee I am well pleased.

The Spirit driveth Him forth into the wilderness; and He was in the wilderness forty days tempted of Satan.

After John was put in prison Jesus came into Galilee, preaching, and saying: Repent ye, for the kingdom of God is at hand.

And as He walked by the sea of Galilee He saw Simon, and Andrew his brother, who were fishers: and Jesus said unto them: Come ye after Me, and I will make you fishers of men: and they left their nets and followed Him. And a little farther He saw James, the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, who were in the boat mending their nets. He called them, and they left the boat and followed Him.

They went into Capernaum: and the people were astonished at His teaching: for He taught as one that had authority.

They entered into the house of Simon, whose wife's mother lay sick of a fever. And He lifted her up, and the fever left her,

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