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2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.
3. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be passed.
4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue, to the ports of any one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to or from one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.
6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law : and a regular statenient and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.
7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States, and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
Sec. 10.-1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money ; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder; ex post tacto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts ; or grant any title of nobility.
2. No state shall without the consent of the Con. gress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the neat produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports and exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any duty of tunnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with
another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
ARTICLE II. Sec. 1.-1. The executive power shall be vested in a president of United States of America. He shall hold' his office during the term of four years, and, together with the vice president, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:
2. Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators and representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress; but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.
[3. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate. The president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate, and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the house of representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for president; and if no person have a majority, then, from the five highest on the list, the said house shall, in like manner, choose the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the staes, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the pres. ident, the person having the greatest number of voteş
of the electors, shall be the vice president. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the vice president.]*
4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same ihroughout the United States.
5. No person, except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be elligible to the office of president: neither shall any person be elligible to that office, who shall not have attained to the
age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.
6. In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to dis charge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall 'devolve on the vice president, and the congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the president and vice president, declaring what officer shall then act as president, and such officer, shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a president shall be elected.
7. The president shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.
8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation :
9. “I do solemnly swear, (or affirm), that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will, to the best of iny ability, preserve; protect, and defend, the constitution of the United States."
SEC. 2-1. The president shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called
* This article was annulled by the 12th article under Amendments.
into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices ; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.
2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the senators present concur: and he shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law. But the congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior, officers as they think proper, in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.
3. The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.
Sec. 3.-1. He shall from time to time, give to Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as "he shall judge necessary and expedient: he may, on extraordinary occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and, in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and shall commission all the officers of the United States.
Sec. 4.-1. The president, vice president, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
States shall be vested in one supreme court, and ia such interior courts as the congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts,, shall hold their offices during good behaviour; and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not bę diminished during their continuance in office,
SEC. 2.-1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more states; between a state and citizens of another state; between citizens of different states ; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states; and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.
2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the supreme court shall have original ju. risdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations, as the congress shall make.
3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crime shall have been committed ; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the congress may by law have directed.
Sec. 3.-1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnessess to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
2. The congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no attainder of treason