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Our Voice Speaks for Itself


Condensed from Pictorial Review (April '26)

Corinne Lowe
Ow strangely they speak—these group of words I have just mentioned.

Americans!” I overheard an What I strive to do is to give an in

Englishwoman say to her com- termediate sound-something between panion, in Paris. "Always through "cat” and “calm.” When I make a real their noses, isn't it? Haven't they success of this vowel I consciously any vocal chords?"

open the lips—aye, more, my very “I think not, my dear," was the

jaws—and give the poor old starved prompt retort. "Their vocal chords

"a" some room. seem to be er—'The Lost Chord'."

The other day I was listening to a Recently I made bold to ask a young stenographer in a New York office and man-a descendant of a Revolutionary this is what she said: “I said to Lil, general—if he had ever had any sug. 'Whatcha gonna do 'bout it? ILI gestions either at preparatory school gotta stop eatin' tuh get thin, 'sme or university regarding pronunciation. for thuh stylish stouts. Trouble with

"Naw," retorted he with character- me is I just love teat, uhn when we istic elegance. "My profs were all suh

have sumpin' good at noight-yuh busy gettin' sumpin' into my bean

know, like a roasta pork-I just keep they didn't have time for that.”

pickin' uhn pickin'." Since then I have asked numerous The words were humorous enough, other college men the same question. but oh, the way she said them! Her Invariably I get the identical response. upper lip was drawn down and held These young Americans come out of rigidly straight across her teeth. Her their halls of learning with no ability lower lip, parted faintly, may have to speak English.

moved, but, if so, as reluctantly as a Now, what are the chief faults of

boy told to go out and pull weeds. our average American voice? To be- Her voice was manufactured somegin with, it is flat, shrill, and without

where in the mouth and the product any body. Why, indeed, should it not

was expelled entirely through the nose. be?

For clarity begins at the dia. Here was an extreme case of an al. phragm, and that's the last thing most universal American defect. It which we think of using in our con- is really no wonder that we speak versation. No, what we do is to im- through our noses. There is often no provise a chirp high up in the throat other exit available. For, as a naand then project that chirp against tion, we are lazy-lipped and lazy. the nose.

jawed. We keep our mouths closed In the perfect rendition of this nasal

like the front room of an old-fashioned twang which is our favorite melody

farmhouse, and when we do move our from coast to coast the flat American

lips they are as stiff as an old gentle"a" is almost an essential instrument.

man of 90. These are the "a"s which occur in I recall the story of a girl who was such words as "mask," "ask," "past," selected for a part in an amateur pro"last," “grant," "dance,” etc., and duction. When she turned up in the which we pronounce with the same first rehearsal the professional actor vowel-sound that occurs properly in called on to direct the production tore "cat"-only worse.

his hair. Now, I do not hold to the doctrine "My dear girl," said he, “send that of the extremely spacious "a" in the nose of yours to a rest-cure and use

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your lips--also your jaws. After all, "oranges." Indeed, some people treat they're perfectly respectable members a short"" as if it were the most of the human organism."

disreputable member of the alphabet. Aside from the faults of our tone- But one of the most flagrant examproduction, we American women have ples of our slovenly speech occurs a tendency to scream. What a noise when we say “yes." We should, of we make when four or five are gath. course, open our mouths and emit a ered together! Just notice the next clean, crisp, short “e," but our favored time that you go to a tea and admit method is to hold the lips rigid and that almost every guest makes the

drag out "y-a-a-s" through the circus-barker sound like the murmer one available exist. Similarly, we say of Summer bees.

"suh" for "so." And as for the "the,"

if the following noun begins with a We are an excitable people and it

vowel we are all too prone to make is reflected in our voices. We raise

it lose its indentity altogether and to our tones because we are nervous and

say “th'elevated" or "th'eel.” we become nervous because we raise our tones. As a matter of fact, I koow Finally, how about "car"? Usually of no more reliable sedative than to we slam this word straight against hear oneself speak in a low tone. Try

the nose. Now, one doesn't exactly it and see. Truly, a soft answer turn- have to say "cah.” I believe in final eth away our own wrath--or any other "r's," but I don't believe in them as a over-strained mood.

gargle. Now as to the crimes of our mis- My last word on the subject of our pronunciation. The chief of these are great national blemish concerns the committed against “you." "Haveyuh,” obstinacy with which we use "will" "didyuh," "whatcha," and 80 on and "won't” in the first person for through a long list of misdemeanors!

"shall" and "sha'n't" In the gram. A great help is constituted by these

mar-school we have learned that "will" in perpetuating the nasal twang. In

expresses opposed volition and that fact, if you separate your pronoun and

"shall” expresses futurity. Apparentyour verb; if you say, “Did you,"

ly most of us believe that this bit "Have you,” etc., with care to give

of knowledge has no more to do with each syllable its full value, you will find that it is almost impossible to

our daily lives than has a Sanskrit implicate the nose.

dictionary. Therefore in this country

we hear many a university professor Along with "juh" and "yuh," "gonna"

say, "I won't be long"--just as if he is also become one of our national

were encountering the most ferocious deities. This is another great aid to

opposition to his will. nasality. Say "going to" instead of "gonna" and you will notice the dif- Alas and alack! And in London the ference. In this same breath let me very cabbies say, “I sha'n't be long!" speak of the way in which we often It is one of the most irritating of the drop our final "gʻ'g—just as if they slipshod ways which have given us burned the mouth or tasted like ipecac among Europeans the reputation for or something. Do let us taste our inelegant speech. "g's, and in timelike olives and

How long are we going to mar our caviar-we may learn to like them.

chic, our wit-all our superior endow. There is a host of other inaccuracies ment-with a speech that is a cross which one hears on every side. In between a Mother Hubbard wrapper stead of using the correct short "O" and a magpie? How long are we going in "coffee" many say “cawffee." In to permit the European of all nationplace of "londry" one usually hears alities to shrug, “Charming! But just "lawndry." Many say "awranges" for listen to them epeak!”?

Down on the Fish Farm


Condensed from the Scientific American (April '26)

Milton Wright N the platter the waiter set down so becoming aerated. Each pond is

before us reposed a broiled trout, an elongated hexagon in shape. Were

glistening with the golden melt- it rectangular the water would be ed butter running down its sides. We likely to lie dormant in the corners, slipped our knife under the skin to the current running through the cen. lay bare the firm white meat, vision. ter. Each pond is cleaned frequently ing as we did so the hip-booted angler by draining off the water and sweepin some mountain brook casting his ing out the sediment with a broom. bright colored fly to lure this morsel

Trout swim thickly about in each to our table. Then, imbedded in the

pool, the big fellows in one, smaller fish's tail, we saw a small metal tag

in another, still smaller in a third, with the letters "NYSSCO" and our and so on. If by some chance a large picture of the fisherman vanished.

trout wiggles through a wicket into This brook trout had never seen a a pond of smaller ones, every man brook.

of the organization drops whatever he Back of that metal tag lies the story is doing and joins in the chase after of an important and growing indus- that one trout. He is a cannibal and try. To get that story the writer if he should be left undisturbed there sought a typical fish hatchery in Para. soon would be none of the little trout dise Valley up in the Pocono Moun- left. If necessary, they shoot him. tains. It is not only the largest com. In these pools the fish are carried mercial institution of its kind in the along until they are two years old. country, but it is complete, supplying The water, coming out of the ground hotels, restaurants and markets with close by, is warmer than the air and trout for food, furnishing fish eggs to never freezes over, except in the last most of the state conservation com- pond, where it is so deep the trout missions and selling small trout to can swim about freely far below the ice. Fealthy sportsmen and fishing clubs in the spring time they are fed twice to stock their streams. For, today, a day; the rest of the year, they are whether you catch a trout in the brook fed once daily. For the older fish the or order it at the hotei, its first home food consists of chopped beef hearts was the hatchery.

or sheep pluck. In some tatcheries As with every hatchery, the water chopped fish is used for food. supply is all important. Preferably It is interesting to note that scarce. it should be spring water free from ly a day passes when the fishing sea. limestone. Here are ten mountain son opens, without several fishermeu springs bubbling up with water in. who have had no luck in the brooks, credibly soft. al! converging into one coming to the hatchery to fill up their rapidly flowing pool with sluices and creels. gates to control the supply readily in November is the spawning time. the event of freshets. Below are a The trout are caught in nets and car. score of pools surrounding a long ried in tubs into the hatchery, where Fooden hatchery building, the whole

there are two divided troughs. Into enclosed by a high wire fence to keep

one end of a trough the fish are out poachers.

dumped. One man, acting as a stripEach pool is at a lower level than per, grasps the fish, tail down, with the one preceding it, the water from his left hand, and rubs his hand firm. one spilling down into the next and ly, pressing not too bard, down the

fish's belly. From the female fish, from 400 to 600 eggs squirt. Each cream-colored egg is about half the size of a pea. The milt from the male fish is stripped in a similar manner into the same pan. After each fish is stripped it is tossed into a trough of running water, the males in one trough, the females into another.

After handling about 30 of the three-year-old females, the stripper has a quart and a half—or 15,000 to 18,000—of eggs. These eggs, together with the milt from the male fish are then washed, spread on a screen bottomed tray and leveled off. The dead eggs are picked out. A pair of little wooden pincers is sometimes used for this. A better method, however, is to take a small syringe, blow about until you find a dead egg, suck it in against the mouth of the syringe and blow it off into a refuse basket. A dead egg may be recognized by its white color. If it is not eliminated from the others it will contaminate them.

Each tiny fry comes free of his shell carrying his own lunch basket. This is a sac attached to his abdomen and it holds the nourishment he absorbs as he grows. The food sac gets smaller as the trout grows larger until the sac is completely absorbed. Then the baby trout at this stage swims up to the top of the water and dives about as if looking for food. This is about 35 days after he has hatched from his shell.

His first food is finely ground beef liver. As the fish grow, the quantity of food is increased and is ground less fine. At first the fish are fed five times a day.

Until spring the fry are kept in the troughs. Then they are put in brood. ing pools and as they grow they are thinned out to give them more room. When they get to be the size of a man's finger they are called "fingerlings." They continue to grow and to be sort. ed into other pools until they reach the age of two or three years, when, with the help of the stripper, it is their privilege to achieve parenthood. Such is the cycle of trout life at the hatchery.

There are many natural enemies to be outwitted. A fish hawk Swoops down, snatches up a trout, plays with it, drops it in a field and then goes back for another one. Last summer a small boy with a gun, at 25 cents a bird, brought down 80. Or a blue heron comes at night, and the next night invites all his relations to join him. Or a kingfisher perches atop a fence post to survey his intended catch. The thing to do with him is to set a spring trap on the post.

Or a water snake makes trouble. There was one that worked its way through a valve and held his mouth up to a wire screen and drank in the small fish as they came against it. And there is the small green heron, the frog, the barn rat-all are creatures of prey constantly to be fought.

Washing the eggs enables them to fill up with water, a condition necessary to their fertilization by the milt they have been mixed with. Each tray is then set gently into one of the many hatching troughs that all the building. These troughs are the incubators—the home of the embryo trout until they graduate from eggs into "fry.' They must be handled as little as possible, although every other day they must be sorted over and the dead ones removed. The warmer the water is the sooner they will hatch.

In 30 to 45 days the eggs begin to "eye up." Two black spots appear; they are the eyes, the first part of the creature to show in the hatching process. The eyes grow stronger, the body develops and in 20 to 45 days more the eggs hatch and the tiny wisps of shell fall through the tray's mesh bottom.

Beating the Broadway Drum

Condensed from The American Magazine (April 26) An Interview with O. P. Grensker by Mary B. Mullett

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CORES of men and women employ

"publicity representative"; someone whose business it is to keep their names before the public. These persons

include politicians, business men and women; social leaders; writers and lecturers, actors and actresses. Within the past ten years "handling publicity" has become a recognized profession. The big idea is to keep a person, or an enterprise, before the public, and in a favorable light.

Of all the press agents in New York, and their name is legion, probably the best known and the busiest is C. P. Greneker, of the Shubert offices. He supervises the paid advertisements of the "shows" he is handling. And he enhances this advertising with publicity, in the form of stories which are printed in the reading columns of the papers. They are not paid for, but are published like any other kind of news,

To get these stories into the papers is not easy, for the competition is fierce. Every day, batches of news items about the Shubert productions are sent to more than 1000 papers all over the country. These shows may later reach these towns; if not, some of the people in these towns may visit New York. Mr. Greneker wants them to be interested in advance; and the best way to get them interested is to have things printed about the productions in local newspapers.

“One of the best ways to get people interested in a play, or a star," Mr. Greneker explained, "is to make use of something in which they are already interested. Some years ago, for instance, Gaby Deslys, the French star, was brought to this country by the Shuberts. At the time, everybody was talking about the high cost of living, especially the high cost of

eggs. The scarcity of eggs was a topic of universal interest, so I made use of it. I cabled Gaby to bring a hen with her. Then I sent a story to the newspapers, saying that she had heard of the scarcity of eggs in America, that she could not exist without a fresh one every morning, and there. fore she was importing a hen in order to be sure of a daily supply. When Gaby arrived, she actually had with her a hen, which she had christened "Henriette.” The newspaper men photographed Gaby with the hen; and these pictures, with the amusing story, were printed all over the country. Not because the papers believed the story, but because it was in line with what people were interested in.

"But I didn't let it drop there. Henriette made the entire tour with the company. I had hundreds of jewel boxes made, costing $2 apiece. At each town, the editor of every local paper was presented with one of these boxes containing a fresh egg on which was rubber-stamped, 'From Henriette, with the compliments of Gaby Deslys.' In San Francisco, we made a good story about Henriette laying an egg on the stage. She really did it. The only time in the whole tour," he added, “that she laid an egg at all!

"Sometimes important news event can be used in getting publicity. After the 'Titantic' disaster, the 'Carpathia' rescued many of the passen. gers. When the 'Carpathia' arrived in New York, I invited the captain and his officers to be the Shuberts' guests at the Winter Garden. They occupied a box that evening and were given a great ovation by the audience. Naturally, every newspaper printed story about it.

"When the 'Carpathia' arrived on her next trip, I had another stunt



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