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won't get any vicarious "kick" out of them. He won't feel a purely sexual excitement.

When the boy asks, "Where do babies come from?" it means that his brain is prepared to accept the an. swer. Don't lie to him. Don't put him off or you will be sorry. There are several excellent ways of putting this knowledge before a boy in an understandable way.

Fire, for example, is fascinating to every boy. In some curious way carbon is being oxidized, releasing heat. The heat warms the room. Heat a tea-kettle of water. As the water boils, hold a pinwheel in front of the spout and the steam will blow the pinwheel around. Tell the boy that is how a locomotive is propelled. In other words, impress upon him that we can control heat and put it to work for us.

Now crack open an egg. It may be sterile. All eggs have not been fertilized. When you have found one that has a cloudy little white spot cling. ing to the yolk you have found the beginning of all life. There is no better illustration. What is that cloudy shred? A little part of the rooster and a little part of the hen. The ovum, it is called. And the ovum does exactly the same thing as fire. It is oxidizing sugar and as & result is creating heat and energy.

With that energy the ovum is picking out of the egg the little particles that it needs to make it grow. It will make some of the particles into feathers, some into blood, some into bones. It will do all this in 21 days. At the end of that time a perfect little chick. en is formed. It will peck a hole in the shell and break through-a living animal.

Now you can say to the boy: "You are a little part of your Daddy and a little part of me. You were once a tiny seed, like the ovum in the egg, except that you grew arms and legs and hair. The human embryo—the little seed-is the most wonderful thing in the world; so wonderful thać Nature, to protect it, planted it inside me, My body protected you like the

egg shell protected the chicken, only you took nine long months to grow be cause you are larger and have more parts than the chicken. All that time you were gathering from my body the things you needed to make you go into a little boy.

"Nature has given animals and people a way of uniting a fragment of the mother's body with a frag. ment of the father's and those two little fragments come together and grow into one little particle. That particle is the little seed from which you grew. Your Daddy grew the same way. So did I. So did your big sis. ter. All living things come into the world in this way.

With the mere answering of the boy's question the mother has only begun his sex-instruction. She must teach him now how to protect his sex mechanism. It is not generally understood that even at birth the little nerve ends in the erogenous zones can be stimulated. Secret vices are easi. ly formed, causing anguish to parents and untold suffering to boys.

Scaring a boy to death by telling him such a habit will lead to insanity is as grave a danger as the habit it. self.

You can't break the habit by scaring him, but he can be scared into a morose frame of mind or into other forms of abnormal behavior through these terrible years. I would say this to such a boy: “That part of your body has a deinite function. You were once too little to play out on the street alone. You can do it now. It is the same with that part of your body. It is not old enough, not strong enough; the use of it now will interfere with its function later on."

The present tendency to frankness in the matter of sex is tremendously encouraging. Hushing has never prevented abnormal forms of sex behavior. Science has taught us that a three-year-old child contains more elements than the weather, and is driven by more forces. And yet there are those who still dam up those forces by stupid traditions, bigotry and intolerance. One can only pity the children of such parents.

New Ideas for Old

Condensed from The Modern World (December, "26)

E. E. 810880n

In order to introduce a new idea

into the mind of man, it is generally necessary to eject an old one. To 10ve in new furniture one has first to love out the old.

When I was a boy there was a popuar trick which not only gave us an pportunity of inflicting a little an1oyance upon a companion not in the ecret, but which illustrates a physial, and it seems to me also a psychoLogical, principle. It consists in plac

ng a pellet of cork the size of a pea in the mouth of a bottle held on its šide, and asking your friend-who was your friend before the experiment bad been tried-to blow it in. He, seeing the bottle was quite empty, undertook to blow the pellet in with 2 puff, but was surprised to find it fly back into his face. The harder he blew the smarter was the blow he received in return. But taking the bottle into your own hands you showed that the bit of cork could be easily got into the bottle by coaxing it with gentle breathing applied at the proper point. The brusque method involved a great waste of breath, besides being unsuccessful.

Now it seems to me that the introduction of a new idea into the world involves the same process as the blowing of the cork pellet into the bottle. It meets with an unseen resistance and the more vigorous the blowing the more energetic the reaction. The bottle is not empty, although it seems so, and to get the cork in, an equivalent volume of air must be previously ex• pelled.

Samuel Butler, in his Notebook, says that there should be a law against telling people things they do not want to know. Such a law is unnecessary because the instinctive reaction of the mentality of the masses is quite sufficient protection. Even scientific men

who are by profession supposed to have an open mind and to welcome eagerly anything new, often turn a deaf ear to unwelcome tidings, or, like Nelson, put the telescope to their blind eye.

A new idea comes first in the mind of one man. That means that the new idea starts out in the world with a majority of 1,600,000,000 against it. If any of the innovations in scientific thought were put to a popular referendum they would be voted down by overwhelming majorities for the first 100 years or longer.

This instinctive mass reaction against new ideas finds expression in many ways much more immediate and powerful than legislation. It is eg. sentially the same as the common aversion to a foreigner. The foreigner may not come from as far as China or India, but may be from the next village if the mental horizon is limited. The slogan of the English village is: "'E's a stranger. 'Eave 'arf a brick at 'im," and the “stranger” may have merely walked in from the next shire, or he may be a native who has shown himself outlandish in costume or conduct.

The education of adults is more difficult than the education of children because the brains of elders are all cluttered up with ideas that have to be cast out or moved about to make room for new notions. We have now. adays loose-leaf ledgers and encyclopedias, and we need loose-leaf brains so that we can keep our mental store of knowledge up to date. Such expandable minds are particularly desirable at the present time when the increase of knowledge through organ: ized research is so rapid and revolutionary.

The principle of the opposing reaction to novelty is as noticeable in the

most trivial deviations from conven• speed on all railroads to eight or pipe tional customs as it is in changes in miles an hour. our fundamental conceptions of the

In 1804 the British Admiralty de universe.

clared that "the introduction of steas Apuleius came near being condemn.

vessels was calculated to strike a ed to death on the equally grave blow at the naval supremacy of the charges that he had used a dentifrice

Empire." As a matter of fact it turnand had dissected fishes to learn

ed out that the steam vessels, which anatomy.

the Admiralty had the desire but At the end of the tenth century, lacked the power to prohibit, have when a high-born Italian lady ven. greatly extended the naval supremacy tured to use a fork instead of her an. of the British Empire. gers when eating, all Venice was

In 1840 Peter Hele, of Nuremberg. scandalized, and the chronicler, Dan

was accused of witchcraft, by his dolo, records that heaven punished

neighbors and his wife, because he had her depravity in afflicting her with a

invented a ticking clock. loathsome disease. When Coryat returned from Italy to England with a In Indiana, in 1844, Lew Wallace, table fork, he was subjected to ridi- father of the author of Ben Hur, was cule. Nowadays Americans strive defeated for re-election to Congress strictly to follow the injunctions of because he had voted for an appropritheir arbiter elegantiarum, Ward ation for a telegraph line between McAllister, whose dying words are

Washington and Baltimore, thus, as said to have been: "Everything that his opponent said, “encouraging some can be eaten with a fork, must be." crank who has a fool idea he can send Any deviation from the established

messages by lightning.” code of manners, irrational as this To come down to our own day, the may be, is speedily penalized by social transatlantic liner which recently displeasure and indeed ostracism, as adopted the Diesel engine as a substiwe may see from the advertisements tute for the steam engine was obliged on etiquette. The uninformed parvenu to erect two huge and useless smoke. in refined society who picks up the stacks in order to resemble the steam. wrong table utensil or offers the

ers of competing lines, because paswrong arm to a lady suffers as much

sengers refused to patronize a vessel from the offence as the unconscious which did not have these familiar and victim of halitosis.

visible signs of its engine power. One The use of coal and the introduction of these pseudo-smokestacks is used of the locomotive, which have been for a ventilator and the other for an the chief factors in the development elevator. of our modern civilization, would

All through the history of science have been prevented at their inception

we find that new ideas have to force if public opinion had possessed the

their way into the common mind in power to enforce its opposition. In

disguise, as though they were bur1306 King Edward I issued a procla.

glars instead of benefactors of the mation making the use of coal as fuel

race. To quote John Wesley: “... al. in London a capital offence, and one

lowing that it takes a century to make man was actually executed for the crime. The wealth of Pennsylvania

a discovery, it requires another cenhas come chiefly from its coal beds, tury to remove prejudice . . The un. yet the man who first attempted in cultivated mind is more prone to judge 1803 to sell a wagonload in Philadel- than to investigate, to censure than phia was preverted under penalty of to aid, and indeed, in general, there the law.

is not a more certain criterion of ig. In 1825 The Quarterly Review de- norance than hasty and inconsiderable manded that Parliament limit the judgment."

Rumania’s Ruthless Jewish Persecutions

Condensed from Current History (February, "ZT)

Solomon Sufrin S a result of the acquisition by Ru- Jewish beards has become a patriotic mania of the provinces known as act. The Jewish newspapers which

Bessarabia, Transylvania, Banat, dare to denounce anti-Semitic instiga. laramuresh and Bukovina, that coun- tions and attacks are called traitors to ry now has a Jewish population of one the country by the Government press, aillion. of this million, three-quar- which always minimizes or excuses all ers had lived in these provinces before anti-Semitic outbreaks. he World War, as citizens with full Professor Cuza advocates a policy of ind equal rights. No discrimination annihilation and destruction, openly vas made against them. Some had held preaching violence against the Jews, righ Government positions. The only sowing the seed of discord and poison. {umanian Jews who suffered from per- ing the minds of the future generation secution lived in the old Kingdom of against Rumanian citizens of the JewRumania, consisting of two principali- ish faith. Upon his recent arrival in ies.

Bucharest, Professor Cuza was met by

a large number of students who paradIn the Treaty of Paris, signed in

ed with him through the streets, as1919, Rumania agreed to recognize as

saulting Jewish passersby, three of Rumanian nationals Jews inhabiting

whom were beaten into insensibility. any Rumanian territory, and that all

The police made arrests, but the disRumanian nationals should enjoy the

turbers of the peace were promptly same rights without distinction of

discharged, while the three injured race, language or religion. The Ru

Jews were held overnight. manian Jews were elated. They felt

The Government enforces indirectly that the supreme sacrifices made by them on the battlefields for the pur

a percentage restriction with refer.

ence to Jewish students. In the city pose of creating a greater Rumania had not been in vain.

of Czernowitz last Fall, of the 67 Jew.

ish students who presented themselves But what happened? A strong anti- at the entrance examinations, only 17 Semitic movement, headed by Profes- were admitted. This resulted in a pubsor A. C. Cuza and Professor Zelea lic protest by the Jewish students Codreanu, of the Uuiversity of Jassy, against open discrimination which acsoon swept the entire country. The tually ruined their future. The enGovernment gave a free hand to the tire group of Jewish students were arviolent activities of the anti-Semites.

rested. During the hearing, one of The entire Jewish population was and them named David Falick was shot still is held in terror. Jews were driv. dead in the court room by an antien from schools and universities; Jew.

Semitic student. The murderer is ish newspaper men were condemned today hailed as a national hero. without mercy by the courts; it be- Traveling on the Rumanian Govern. came unsafe for Jews to walk the ment railroads has become a most danstreets, to attend theaters, to ride in gerous enterprise for a Jew. Very street cars or to visit public places. frequently Jews are set upon by bands Tbose Jews who attempted to defend of anti-Semites who either beat them themselves received severe sentences severely or throw them bodily out of from the Magistrates, while anti-Sem- the moving train. Only a few months ites who actually killed and murdered ago a Jewish corporal, who during the were hailed as heroes. The tearing of War had received decorations for val.

yr, was thrown of a moving train, and it was necessary to amputate one of his legs.

The Jewish children find great difficulty in entering the public schools, and those who succeed become verit. able martyrs by reason of the treatment they receive from the other children, and very often from the teachers themselves.

No percentage restriction affecting the admission of Jews to the universities is legalized, but the same purpose is achieved indirectly. The majority of the Jewish candidates fail to pass the entrance examinations. Many of those who have already entered the universities are obliged to abandon their studies, because life is made intolerable for them. The medical faculty of the University of Jassy recently decided not to admit any Jewish students to the examination of anatomy unless they brought their quota of cadavers for dissection. As Jewish law compels the immediate burial of the dead, it is impossible for Jewish students to comply with this condition. The result is that the number of Jewish students has been reduced by 80 percent. Other students have been refused their diplomas simply because an anii-Semitic professor declined to sign the document.

While the anti-Semitic movement grows more intense daily, the Gov. ernment takes no measures to abate it. The Penal Code provides penalties for those who incite one section of the people against another; but there is not one case on record of a single person brought to justice by reason of

such incitement against Jews. These laws, however, are put into operation with excellent effect against the Socialist and the Communist parties. Thousands of pamphlets are distributed charging the Jews with being murderers, or traitors, or that they acted as spies during the War. The official press representing the Government is encouraged to promote this propaganda by the Government itself.

The Jews are as far from enjoying the rights of equal citizenship as

ever. The Ministry of the Interior is now drafting a new measure forbioding Jews to live in the capital. Toe commissions appointed to examine in dividual applications for citizenship have rejected thousands of Jewish applications.

What took place during the trial of the anti-Semitic students in Jassy has been described by André Gernier, of Paris, a man enjoying the greatest respect in Western Europe. A certain Manciu was named as Police Preiect of Jassy, and he really went seriously about the task of bringing order to the city. For this "treason to the Fatherland" Manciu was one day mur dered and two policemen wounded in open court, by a man named Codreanu. The murderer was brought to trial, but the proceedings were re duced to a mockery of justice. The court room was invaded by several hundred anti-Semitic students, who turned the trial into a mass meeting. Professor Cuza delivered a long address calling upon the court to do its "patriotic duty" and give Codreanu his freedom. This was done. But that was not all. Codreanu became a national hero. Several days after the trial he was married, and the wedding was turned into a grand demonstration in honor of the "hero" and against the Jews. Approximately 30,000 followers came from all parts of Rumania, parading and bearing presents for the "hero." Codreanu headed the procession carrying a stafi of the ancient dukes, as a "symbol of power.” In short, the wedding of the murderer became a national holiday.

Gernieu asked a Minister: "How can you permit such things?" The Minister replied: "I have no power." Pointing to a detachment of troops which happened to pass by, Gernieu remarked: "There you have the pow. er." The Minister smiled. “With this power," he said, "you can fight for. eign enemies, but under no circumstances the anti-Semites, for 95 percent of the army is anti-Semitic.” The situation in short, as Gernieu summied it up, is that anti-Semiticism governs Rumania today.

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