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Panama Railroad Company, and the Pacific Steamship Company, as also to Messrs. Wells, Fargo, Co., for free transportation of very many boxes and packages. The expense of what has been thus received, if charged for at the usual rate, would have been entirely beyond the means of the Institution, and if in an unprecedentedly short time our knowledge of the natural history of California has been carried to a point fully equal to that of any of the older States, it is unquestionably owing in very great measure to the liberality of the companies above mentioned in so generously seconding the efforts of the Institution.
The following table exhibits the additions made to the record books of the
museum in 1857, in continuation of previous years :
The remarks in the last annual report of the Institution in relation to the richness and extent of its collections are strengthened by the additions of the past year, and they are confidently believed to be beyond competition in the field of American zoology. The precise statistics cannot now be given for the different classes and orders, as the cataloguing is not yet completed. In one department, however, some idea of the facts may be realized by the statement, that on the first of July, 1857, the Institution possessed
Of skins or alcoholic specimens of North American mammals...
This was entirely exclusive of Cetacea, Pinnipedia, Cheiroptera and Quadrumana, of which there were many species. Since the first of July, the number of species of all orders has received a large increase. The species of North American mammals in the museum of the Institution, not mentioned in the great work of Audubon and Bachman, exceeds 80. Of birds, the North American species are believed to exceed 600; of reptiles, 400; of fishes, probably 800 or more. As all these classes are in process of elaboration, accurate statistics can probably be presented in the next report.
Work done in the museum.
The systematic registration of the Smithsonian collections has been carried on as rapidly as other duties would admit. The number of species labeled and entered during the year amounted to 5,271; most of them in three different series of records, making nearly 15,000 entries. It may be proper to state that all collections, as received, are entered in a general record book, of which the alphabetical list of donations appended to this report is a transcript. The different specimens are next labeled and then entered on the record for the class, or particular order, and from this posted in a ledger consisting of separate sheets, one for each species, systematically arranged, and each sheet containing an enumeration of all the specimens of its species, with the localities, sex, date, measurements and other memoranda, making the third time of writing out the name and statistics. In this way not only can information be obtained of the number of species of each class or order, but also of the separate specimens, with the locality and general character of each one. The posting up is complete for the mammals, birds, and osteological specimens, and well under way for the reptiles and fishes, and some orders of invertebrates.
During the past year the general report on the mammals of the Smithsonian collection has been completed and printed, forming volume VIII of the Report of the Pacific Railroad Survey. That on the birds is far advanced, and will be finished in the course of the ensuing year, which will also, it is hoped, witness the completion of reports on the reptiles and fishes.
Distribution and use of the Smithsonian collections.
As in previous years, the Smithsonian specimens have been freely used by students and investigators in natural history, in preparation of Monographs and other researches. Duplicates have also been distributed to a considerable extent, and as the collections become better arranged and other circumstances allow, it is hoped to make such distribution on a very extensive scale.
List of Donations during the year 1857.
C. Bellmann.-Fishes, &c., in alcohol, from Mississippi.
deer and otter from Virginia; jar of birds, mammals and reptiles from the Alleghenies of Virginia.
J. Mason Brown.-Cast of the skull of Daniel Boone, taken previous to the re-interment of his remains.
Lieutenant F. T. Bryan, U. S. A.-Three boxes of zoological specimens collected by William S. Wood on the wagon-road expedition from Fort Riley to Bridger's Pass.
Archibaid Campbell.-One box of dried skins, and one chest of alcoholic specimens collected on Puget Sound by Dr. Kennerly, on the northwest boundary survey.
J. H. Clark.-Chest with two cans filled with reptiles, fishes and
mammals in alcohol ; specimens of salt from the salt plains of th Pewsa, on the southern boundary of Kansas.
Mr. Cook. ---Copper ores from Arizona.
Dr. J. G. Cooper.-Collections made near Fort Laramie, and thence to Independence; four bottles of Salamanders from New Jersey ; one hundred skins of birds from California and Washington Territory.
L. Coulon.-Box of Swiss mammals.
Dr. S. Wylie Crawford, U. S. A.—Thirty-two jars of reptiles and mammals from Texas and New Mexico.
Benjamin Cross.—Golden eagle in the flesh (length 361 inches ; extent, 86 inches; wing, 25 inches.)
J. P. Cunningham.-Box of Kaolin earth from Virginia.
T. C. Downie.-Coluber couperi and Geomys pinetis, in alcohol, from Georgia.
C. Drexler.-Skins of six birds and three mammals from near Phil. adelphia.
Dr. J. Evans.-Ten boxes and one bundle of collections of geological survey of Oregon; skins and skull of Felis concolor (panther ;) six skulls of Flathead Indians, from Oregon.
James Fairie.-25 skins of Lepus aquaticus (marsh hare) and Sciurus ludovicianus (Fox squirrel;) birds, reptiles in alcohol, from Louisiana. A. B. Forbes.
Viviparous fish (Ennichthys megalops) from California.
Professor C. G. Forshey.—Cast skin of Scotophis, and skin of mouse, from Texas; specimens of supposed equine fossil foot-marks ; jar of alcoholic specimens; skins of serpents; dried plants ; skin of Ocelot and of Raccoons from Fayette county, Texas.
W. H. Gantt, M. D.-Infusorial earth from Texas.
0. E. Garrison.—Six packages Infusorial earth ; skins of Putorius richardsonii and Spermophilus 13-lineatus from Minnesota.
Dr. W. Gesner.- Jar of Geomys pinetis and Arvicola ; mammals and reptiles in alcohol; two jars of mammals from Georgia.
George Gibbs.-Box and barrel containing skeleton of large shark, from Port Townsend, W. T.; keg of fishes, from Puget Sound; keg of fishes from Columbia river.
Dr. J. B. Gilpin.-Skins of mammals from Nova Scotia ; fifteen skins of Putorius and Sciurus from Labrador and Nova Scotia ; jar with 12 mammals, in alcohol, from Nova Scotia.
W. R. Goodman.-Diatomaceous earth from Anne Arundel county, Maryland.
John Gould.—160 skins of birds of Mexico and Guatemala ; skins of humming birds, (Campylopterus delattrii, Trochilus heteropogon and Eriopus luciani;) skins of Apternus hirsutus and arcticus,
Donald Gunn.-Skins of mammals and birds; skeletons; specimens in alcohol from Red river. Skeletons of male and female wolverine from Red river, H. B. T.
Dr. W. A. Hammond, U. S. A.-Box of skins of birds and mammals from Kangas. Chest and two cans of zoological specimens collected during Lieut. Bryan's wagon-road expedition to Bridger's Pass,
Dr. W. A. Hammond and J. X. de Vesey.-Skins of twenty-four birds and of two prairie wolves from Kansas.
Dr. E. W. Harker.—Skin of Salamander (Geomys pinetis ?) from Georgia.
F. V. Hayden.—Six boxes of fossils collected in the Upper Missouri prior to 1856.
C. J. Heistand.-Specimens in alcohol of squirrels, moles, &c., from Pennsylvania.
Dr. E. W. Hilgard.—Specimen of Carocolla from Spain.
John S. Hittel.--Human skulls and bones encrusted in stalagmite, from a cave in Calaveras county, Cal.
Col. Hoffman, U. 8. A.-Concretions from Cannon-Ball river, Nebraska.
B. A. Hoopes.-Can of Menobranchus and small mammals from Lake Superior.
Robert Howell.-Two cans of mammals, in alcohol, from Tioga county, N. Y.
Lieut. J. C. Ives, U. S. A.-Fossil Dendrechinus excentricus, Point Lobas, Cal.; miscellaneous fossils from California; fossils from Gatun, N. G.-all collected by Dr. J. S. Newberry.
Dr. R. W. Jeffrey, U. S. N.-Collection of fishes of Norfolk.
Dr. C. B. Kennerly.—Jar of mammals in alcohol, and skins of Sciurus cinereus, from Clark county, Va.
Robt. Kennicott.-Six boxes zoological collections made in southern Illinois, and in Minnesota to Lake Winipeg. (Deposited.) Gopher (Geomys bursarius) from Illinois ; thirty skins of Arvicola and Sorex from Illinois; two living squirrels, (Sciurus ludovicianus.)
Major Jno. Leconte.- Astacus latimanus from Georgia,
Wm. M. Magraw.-Box of skins of birds and mammals; plants from Independence; three boxes zoological collections, plants, &c., gathered between Fort Leavenworth and Fort Laramie during the South Pass wagon-road expedition. Collected by Dr. J. G. Cooper.
Geo. P. Marsh.-Minerals from Europe.
C. C. Martin.—Keg of reptiles, fish and mammals, from Pennsylvania and New York.
W. Massenburn.- Collections of serpents and crustacea from Florida.
Maximilian Prinz Von Wied.— Wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Germany, and skins of chamois (Capella rupricapra) and of female ibex (Capra ibex) from Mont Blanc.
Dr. E. Michener.-Mounted original of Emberiza townsendii. (Deposited.)
D. Miller, jr.—Thirty small mammals, in alcohol, from Pennsylvania.
Robt. (. Milton.-Box of fossils from Michigan.
H. B. Möllhausen.-Skin of head and skull, with horns, of European stag, (Cervus elaphus.)
W. E, Moore.-Skins of monkeys from Bolivia
H. M. Neisler.—Shells, reptiles, fishes, &c., in alcohol, from Georgia.
Dr. J. S. Newberry.—Box of shells, Acapulco; specimens of coals from Ohio.
New Orleans Academy of Sciences.—Skin of pouched rat (Geomys pinetis) from Florida.
B. M. Norman.—Three living turtles from New Orleans, (Emy mobilensis ?)
B. F. Odell.—Mammals and reptiles from near Lake Winnibigoshish, Minnesota.
John Oliphant.–Falco sparverius, in flesh, from Maryland.
Capt. T. J. Page, U. S. N.-Two packages of maté and six bottles of water from the Rio Negro and Mato Grosso.
Dr. D. W. C. Peters.-Skins, birds, and mammals; reptiles and fishes, in alcohol, from New Mexico.
Thos. M. Peters.—Bottle of reptiles ; skin of Abastor erythrogrammus from Alabama.
Prof. Poey.--Two living Emys decussata; living boa or maja, (Epicrates angulifer ;) collection of reptiles, in alcohol, from Cuba.
J. P. Postell. -Two living Gophers, (Testudo polyphemus ;) skull of Geomys pinetis ; box of shells, and other invertebrata, from Georgia.
John Potts.-Skins of Bassaris astuta, Putorius frenatus and Didelphys californica, from the city of Mexico.
Francis B. Ray.—Bottle containing Ophibolus eximius from Missouri.
E. Raymond.-Fossil wood from Neuse river, North Carolina.
J. W. Raymond.-Skin of white raccoon from North Carolina, and of Bassaris astuta from California.
Peter Reid.-Fresh water sponge, in alcohol, from near Lake Champlain.
Rev. Jos. Rowell.-Monkeys and other mammals, fishes, &c., in alcohol.
H. de Saussure.- Four bats, Sorex alpinus, Myoxus glis, Mus sylvaticus, and musculus, and Arvicola nivalis from the St. Gothard, Switzerland; other small mammals of Switzerland.
S. H. Scudder.-Can of mammals, in alcohol; box of insects from Massachusetts.
Lieut. Semmes, U.S. N.-Syenite from North Greenland.
J. J. Steenstrup, Director of Zoological Museum, Copenhagen.-Six jars of invertebrates from Greenland
J. H. Sternberg.--Four turtles; two boxes of shells, and of reptiles and invertebrates, in alcohol; box of living plants from Isthmus of Panama.
William Stimpson. Two kegs and numerous jars of marine invertebrates and fishes from Massachusetts ; living marine animals. for aquarium. Dr. George Suckley.-Hunters' skin of elk and of mountain goat,