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to the people and for throwing his friends out.* A new movement now commencing in this direction, and, first of all, the Athenians from Phyle setting upon their Thirty rulers and overpowering them, Lysander, coming

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Expul, home in haste, persuaded the Lacedæmonians to support

the oligarchies and to put down the popular governThirty Tyrants ments; and to the Thirty in Athens, first of all, they

B.C. 403.

sent a hundred talents for the war, and Lysander himself, as general, to assist them. But the kings, envying him and fearing lest he should take Athens again, re

* This, however, was pretty certainly before the recall of Lysander by the scytala. The kings may have taken measures of the same kind also afterwards when he was away on his voyage. But the movement at Athens took place very early ; the Thirty were only in power for a few months, and were ex



solved that one of themselves should take the command. Accordingly Pausanias went, and in words indeed professed as if he had been for the tyrants against the people, but in reality exerted himself for peace, that Lysander might not, by means of his friends, become lord of Athens again. This he brought easily to pass ; and reconciling the Athenians and quieting the tumults, he defeated the ambitious hopes of Lysander. Though shortly after, on the Athenians renouncing the Spartan supremacy, he was censured for having thus taken, as it were, the bit out of the mouth of the people, which, being freed from the oligarchy, could now break out again into affronts and insolence; and Lysander regained the reputation of a person who employed his command not in gratification of others, nor for vain show, but strictly for the good of Sparta.

His speech also was high and daunting to such as 22 opposed him. The Argives, for example, contended about the bounds of their land, and thought they brought juster pleas than the Lacedæmonians; holding out his sword, “He,” said Lysander, " that is master of this, brings the best argument about the bounds of territory.” A man of Megara at some conference taking freedom with hiin, “ This language, my friend,” said he, “is that of a city."* To the Bæotians, who were acting pelled before midsummer, 403 B.C., the beginning of the archonship of Euclides. Lysander, after failing in his endeavours to maintain them, appears to have gone to Asia again; was recalled; and then went to Ammon; returning some time before the death of Agis, B.C. 399.

* Literally, “Your words require a city,” are those of a man representing a place of political importance; “ You speak as if any one cared about Megara's opinion.”


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a doubtful part, he put the question, whether he should
pass through their country with spears upright, or levelled.
After the revolt of the Corinthians, when, on coming
to their walls, he perceived the Lacedæmonians hesi-
tating to make the assault, and a hare was seen to leap
through the ditch: “Are you not ashamed," he said,
to fear an enemy, for whose laziness the very

hares Death sleep upon their walls ?” But when king Agis died, B.C. 399. leaving a brother, Agesilaus, and a son, so reputed,

Leotychides, Lysander, being attached to Agesilaus,
persuaded him to lay claim to the kingdom, as being
a true descendant of Hercules ; Leotychides lying under
the suspicion of being the son of Alcibiades, who had
lived privately in familiarity with Timæa, the wife of
Agis, when he was an exile in Sparta. Agis, they say,
computing the time, satisfied himself that she could not
have conceived by him, and had hitherto always neg-
lected and manifestly disowned Leotychides. But now
when he was carried sick to Heræa, being ready to die,
what with the importunities of the young man himself,
and with those of his friends, in the presence of several
persons he declared Leotychides to be his; and desiring
those who were present to bear witness of this to the
Lacedæmonians, died. They accordingly did so testify in
favour of Leotychides. And Agesilaus, being in general
highly regarded, and strong in the support of Lysander,
was on the other hand prejudiced by Diopithes,
famous for his knowledge of oracles, who adduced this
prophecy in reference to Agesilaus's lameness :

Beware, great Sparta, lest there come of thee,
Though whole thyself, an halting sovereignty:
Troubles, both long and unexpected too,
With waves of deadly warfare shall ensue.

a man



When many

therefore yielded to the oracle and inclined to Leotychides, Lysander said that Diopithes did not take the prophecy rightly; for it was not that the god would be offended if


ruled over the Lacedæmonians, but that the kingdom would be a lame one, if bastards and false-born should govern with the posterity of Hercules. By this argument, and by his great influence among them, he prevailed, and Agesilaus was made king. Immediately, therefore, Lysander spurred him on to 23

Agesimake an expedition into Asia, putting him in hopes jaus that he might destroy the Persians and attain the sent to

, height of greatness. And he wrote to his friends in B.C. 396. Asia, bidding them request to have Agesilaus appointed to command them in the war against the barbarians; which directions they obeyed, and sent ambassadors to Lacedæmon to entreat it. And this would seem to be a second favour done Agesilaus by Lysander, not inferior to his first in obtaining him the kingdom. But with ambitious natures, which otherwise are not illqualified for command, the feeling of jealousy of those near them in reputation sadly stands in the way of the performance of noble actions; they make those their rivals in virtue, whom they ought to use as their helpers to it. Agesilaus took Lysander among the thirty counsellors that accompanied him, with intentions of using him as his especial friend. But when they were come into Asia, the people there, to whom he was but little known, addressed themselves to him briefly and seldom; whereas Lysander, because of their frequent previous intercourse, was visited and attended by large numbers, by his friends out of observance and

by others out of fear. And just as in tragedies it not uncommonly is the case with actors, the person who represents a messenger or servant is much noticed, and plays the chief part, while he who wears the crown and sceptre is hardly heard to speak, even so it was with the counsellor here; he had all the real honours of the government, and to the king was left the empty name of power. This disproportionate ambition ought very likely to have been in some way softened down, and Lysander should have been reduced to his proper second place. But wholly to cast off and to insult and affront for glory's sake one who was his benefactor and friend, was not an action in which Agesilaus should have allowed himself. First of all, he gave him no opportunity for any action, and never put him in any place of command; then, for whomsoever he perceived him exerting his interest, these persons he always sent away with a refusal, and with less attention than any ordinary suitors, thus silently undoing and weakening his influence. So Lysander, miscarrying in everything and perceiving that his diligence for his friends was but a hindrance to them, forbore to help them, entreating them that they would not address themselves nor make their suit to him, but speak to the king and to those who could be of more service to friends than at present he could. Most, on hearing this, forbore to trouble him about their concerns; but continued their attentions to him, waiting upon him in the walks and places of exercise ; at which Agesilaus was more annoyed than ever, envying him the honour; so that, finally, when he gave the rest who were serving under him, places of command and the governments of cities,

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