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side, and afterwards taken part with Demetrius, said the two things were not in themselves contrary, it being always most advisable to obey the conqueror. We have nothing of this kind to allege against Demosthenes, as one who would turn aside or prevaricate, either in word or deed. There could not have been less variation in his public acts if they had all been played, so to say, from first to last, from the same score. Panætius the philosopher says that most of his orations are written, as if they were to prove this one conclusion, that what is honest and virtuous is for itself only to be chosen ; as that of the Crown, that against Aristocrates, that for the Immunities*, and the Philippics; in all which he persuades his fellow-citizens to pursue, not that which seems most pleasant, easy, or profitable; but repeatedly tells them to prefer what is just and honourable before their own safety and preservation. So that if he had kept his hands unsoiled on all occasions, if his courage in war had been answerable to the generosity of his principles and the dignity of his orations, he might deservedly have his name placed, not in the number of such orators as Mærocles, Polyeuctus, and Hyperides, but in the highest rank with Cimon, Thucydides, and

Pericles. 14 Certainly amongst those cotemporary with him,

Phocion, though he appeared on the less commendable side in the commonwealth and was counted as one of the Macedonian party, nevertheless by his courage and his honesty procured himself a name not inferior to those of Ephialtes, Aristides, and Cimon. But Demo

* More commonly known as the oration against Leptines.

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sthenes, being neither to be relied upon, as Demetrius says, in arms, nor wholly on all sides inaccessible to offers (for how invincible soever he was against the gifts of Philip and the Macedonians, yet elsewhere he lay open to assault and was carried away by the stream of gold which came down from Susa and Ecbatana), proved himself better able to recommend than to imitate the virtues of past times. And yet (excepting only Phocion) in his life and manners he far surpassed the orators of his time. None of them addressed the people so boldly; he attacked unceasingly the faults, and opposed himself to the unreasonable desires of the multitude, as may be seen in his orations. Theopompus writes that the Athenians having called upon him to accuse a certain person, he refused to do it; upon which a great outcry following, he rose and said, “Your counsellor, whether you will or no, o men of Athens, you shall always have me; but a sycophant or false accuser, though you would have me, I shall never be.” And his conduct in the case of Antiphon was perfectly aristocratical; whom, after he had been acquitted in the assembly, he took and brought before the court of Areopagus, and, setting at naught the displeasure of the people, convicted him there of having promised Philip to burn the arsenal; whereupon the man was condemned by that court and suffered for it. He accused also Theoris the priestess, amongst other misdemeanours, of having instructed and taught the slaves to deceive and cheat their masters, for which the sentence of death was passed upon her, and she was executed.

Demosthenes is said to have written for Apollodorus 15

the speech by which he gained his cause against Timotheus the general in an action of debt, and also those against Phormion and Stephanus, and in this latter case was with some

reason thought to have acted dishonourably, for the speech which Phormion used against Apollodorus was also of his making; he, as it were, having simply furnished two adversaries out of the same shop with weapons to wound one another. Of his public orations that against Androtion and those against Timocrates and Aristocrates were written for others, before he had come forward himself as a politician; they seem to have been composed when he was twenty-seven or twenty-eight years old. That against Aristogiton and that for the Immunities he spoke himself, at the request, as he says, of Ctesippus the son of Chabrias, but, as some say, out of courtship to the young man's mother; though in fact he did not marry her, for his wife was a woman of Samos, as Demetrius the Magnesian writes in his book on Persons of the same Name. It is not certain whether his oration against Æschines for Misconduct as Anibassador was ever spoken; although Idomeneus says that Æschines wanted only thirty voices to condemn him. But this seems not to have been the fact, if we may judge by their own language in their orations on the Crown; in which neither of them speaks clearly or directly of the cause having actually come to trial.

Let others decide this controversy. 16 It was never a question what course he would take The in politics; even during the peace he let nothing that Peace, B.C. 346. was done by the Macedonian


without comment and censure, and upon all occasions kept stirring up the people



of Athens and kindling them against him. And so in the court of Philip no man was so much talked of or of such great account as he; and when he went, as one of the ten ambassadors who were sent into Macedonia, though all were listened to, yet his speech was answered by the king with most care and exactness. Not that in other respects Philip treated him as honourably as the rest, or showed to him the same favour as he did to Æschines and Philocrates. And so when they came home and extolled Philip for his eloquence, his beautiful person, nay, and also for his plenteous drinking, Demosthenes could not but cavil at their selection, saying one was the praise of a rhetorician, the second that of a woman, and the last the merit of a sponge ; no one of them the proper commendation of a prince.

But when things tended at last to war, Philip on 17 the one side being not able to live in peace, and the ExpediAthenians on the other side being stirred up by De-Euboea, mosthenes, the first action he put them upon was an 340. expedition to Eubea, which by the treachery of the tyrants had become subject to Philip: and on his proposition the decree was voted, and they crossed over and drove the Macedonians out of the island. The Relief next was the relief of the Byzantines and Perinthians, zantium who were attacked by the Macedonians. He persuaded

rinthus, the people to lay aside their enmity against these cities, to forget the offences committed by either of them in the Social War, and to send them such succours as eventually saved and secured them. Next after, he went on an embassy through the states of Greece, which he solicited and so far incensed against Philip, that, a few only excepted, he brought them all into

B.C. 341,

and Pe

B.C. 339.

a general league to resist him. So that besides the forces composed of the citizens themselves there was an army consisting of fifteen thousand foot and two thousand horse, and the money to pay these mercenaries was levied and brought in with great cheerfulness. On which occasion it was, says Theophrastus, on the allies requesting that their contributions for the war might be ascertained and stated, Crobylus, the popular speaker, told them, War couldn't be boarded at so much a day. Now was all Greece up in arms, and in great expectation. The Eubeans, Achæans, Corinthians, Megarians, Leucadians, and Corcyræans, their people and their cities, were all in the league. But the hardest task was yet behind, left for Demosthenes, to draw the Thebans into this confederacy with the rest. Their country bordered next upon Attica, they had great forces for the war, and at that time were accounted the best soldiers of all Greece; and it was no easy matter to make them break with Philip, who had so recently laid them under obligations to him in the Phocian war; more especially as the subjects of dispute and variance between Athens and Thebes were so continually renewed and exasperated by petty quarrels arising out of the

proximity of their frontiers. 18 But when Philip, encouraged by his good success at Philip Amphissa, suddenly seized Elatea and possessed himElatea, self of Phocis, and the Athenians were in consternation, October and none durst venture to rise up to speak, no one

knew what to say, all were at a loss, and the whole assembly in silence and perplexity, in this extremity of affairs Demosthenes was the only man who appeared, his counsel to them being alliance with the Thebans.

B.O. 339.

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