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who upbraids him upon this account and rails at him as one void of natural affection towards his children. Whereas indeed he rather exposes his own poor spirit and effeminate mind, if he really means make wailings and lamentation the signs of a gentle and affectionate nature, and to condemn those who bear such contingencies with more temper and less passion. For my own part, I do not say that it was wise or right in the people to crown themselves with garlands and to sacrifice to the gods for the death of one who in his success and victories, when they were a conquered people, had used them with so much clemency and humanity; (for, besides provoking fortune, it was unworthy in itself, to make Philip a citizen of Athens and pay him honours while he lived, and when he fell by another's hand, to set no bounds to their delight, to insult over him dead, and to sing triumphant songs, as if they by their own valour had vanquished him); yet I must at the same time commend the conduct of Demosthenes, who, leaving tears and lamentations and domestic sorrows to the women, madeit his business to attend to the interests of the commonwealth. And I think it the duty of him who would be accounted to have a soul truly valiant and fit for government, that, standing always firm to the common good, and letting private griefs and troubles find their compensation in public blessings, he should maintain the dignity of his character and station, much more than actors who represent the persons of kings and tyrants, who, we see, when they either laugh or weep on the stage, follow, not their own private inclinations, but the course consistent with the plot and with their part. And if, moreover, when our



neighbour is in misfortune, it is not our duty to forbear offering any consolation, but rather to say whatever may tend to cheer him, and to invite his attention to any agreeable objects, (just as we tell people who are troubled with sore eyes, to withdraw their sight from bright and offensive colours to green and those of a softer mixture,) from whence can a man seek in his own case better arguments of consolation for afflictions in his family, than from the prosperity of his country, by making public and domestic chances count, so to say, together, and the better fortune of the state obscure, and conceal the less happy circumstances of the individual. I have been induced to say so much, because I have known many readers melted by Æschines's language into a soft and unmanly tenderness.

The cities of Greece were inspirited once more by 23 the efforts of Demosthenes to form a league together. The Thebans, whom he had provided with arms, set war; upon their garrison, and slew many of them; the ander's Athenians made preparations to join their forces with tion of

Thebes, them; Demosthenes ruled supreme in the popular B.C. 335. assembly, and wrote letters to the Persian officers who commanded under the king in Asia, inciting them to make war upon Alexander, whom he called child and simpleton.* But when Alexander, having settled matters in his own kingdom, came in person with his army into Bootia, down fell the courage of the Athenians, and Demosthenes was hushed; the Thebans, deserted by them, fought by themselves, and lost their city. After

* Child and Murgites, the latter being the character held up to ridicule in an old poem ascribed to Homer,—the boy who, though fully grown up, has never attained the sense or wits of a man.

Renewal of the


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which the people of Athens, all in distress and great perplexity, resolved to send ambassadors to Alexander, and amongst others, made choice of Demosthenes for one; but his heart failing him for fear of the king's anger, he returned back from Cithæron and left the embassy. Alexander sent at once to Athens, requiring, as Idomeneus and Duris state, ten orators to be delivered up to him, but as the most and best historians say, these eight,-Demosthenes, Polyeuctus, Ephialtes, Lycurgus, Morocles, Demon, Callisthenes, and Charide

It was upon this occasion that Demosthenes related to them the fable in which the sheep are said to deliver up their dogs to the wolves ; himself and those who with him contended for the people's safety being, in his comparison, the dogs that defended the flock, and Alexander the Macedonian arch-wolf. And “ see corn-dealers,” he said, “ carry about a few grains of wheat in a dish as a sample, and by that sell all the stock, so you, by delivering up us, do at the saine time unawares surrender all yourselves together with us; so Aristobulus the Cassandrian relates. The Athenians were deliberating and at a loss what to do, when Demades, having agreed with the persons whom Alexander had demanded, for five talents, undertook to go ambassador and intercede with the king for them; whether it was that he relied on his kindness, or hoped to find him satiated, as a lion glutted with slaughter. Certainly, however, he went, and prevailed with him

to pardon the men and to be reconciled to the city. 24 So he and his friends, when Alexander went away,

were great men, and Demosthenes was quite put aside. of Agis, B.C. 331. When Agis the Spartan made his attempt, he also




made some sort of movement in his favour; but soon withdrew, as the Athenians would take no part in it, and Agis was slain, and the Lacedæmonians overpowered. During this time however the indictment Cause against Ctesiphon concerning the Crown was brought Crown, to trial. It had been first commenced when Chærondas B.C. 331. was archon, a little before the battle in Chæronea, but it was only proceeded with ten years after, in the


of Aristophon, and was then famous beyond any public cause that ever was tried, alike for the renown of the orators and for the generous courage of the judges, who, though at that time the accusers of Demosthenes were in the height of power and supported by the favour of Macedonians, yet would not give judgment against him, but acquitted him so honourably, that Æschines did not obtain the fifth part of their suffrages on his side; so that immediately after he left the city, and spent the rest of his life in teaching rhetoric about the island of Rhodes and upon

the continent in Ionia. It was not long after that Harpalus fled from Alexan- 25 der and came out of Asia to Athens, knowing himself


palus in guilty of many misdeeds into which his love of luxury

Athens, had led him, and fearing the king, who was now grown terrible to his friends. No sooner had he addressed himself to the people and delivered up his goods, his ships and himself to their disposal, but the other orators of the town had their eyes quickly fixed upon his money and came in to his assistance, persuading the Athenians to receive and protect their suppliant. Demosthenes at first gave

advice to chase him out of the country, and to beware lest involved their city in a war, upon an unnecessary and unjust occasion. But some few days

B.C. 324.

after, as they were taking an account of the treasure, Harpalus, perceiving how much he was pleased with a cup of Persian manufacture, and how curiously he inspected the sculpture and make of it, desired him to poise it in his hand and consider the weight of the gold. Demosthenes, amazed to feel how heavy it was,

asked him what weight it came to. “To you,” said Harpalus, smiling, “it shall come with twenty talents.” And presently after, when it was night, he sent him the cup with so many talents. Harpalus, it seems, was a person of singular skill to discern a man's covetousness by the air of his countenance and the look and movements of his


For Demosthenes did not resist the temptation, but admitting the present, like an armed garrison, into the citadel of his house, he surrendered himself up to the interest of Harpalus. The next day he came into the assembly with his neck swathed about with wool and bandages, and when they called on him to rise up and speak, he made signs as if he had lost his voice. But the wits, turning the matter to ridicule, said that certainly the orator had been seized that night with no other than a silver quinsy. And soon after, the people, becoming aware of the bribery, grew angry, and would not suffer him to speak or make any apology for himself, hut ran him down with noise; and one man stood

up and cried out, “ What, ye men of Athens, will you not hear the cup-bearer ?"* So at length they banished Harpalus out of the city; and fearing lest they should be called to account for the treasure which the

* It was the custom of drinking parties, to pass the cup round, and for each man, as he held it in hand, to sing some verses. The cup in the hand was therefore the signal for listening.

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