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States no little anxiety. However, the statement of his policy toward foreign powers made by President Monroe in 1823 put a stop to the encroachment of Russia on the Pacific coast. Russia did not value Alaska highly and knew that in case of war she would have difficulty in defending it. As early as 1859 she intimated her willingness to sell it to the United States. Throughout the Civil War Russia had been most friendly toward the United States and the desire to continue the cordial relations and at the same time decrease the foreign power in the United States led our government to accept the offer. The purchase was concluded 30 March 1867, the formal transfer of the territory was made at Sitka 18 October 1867, thus adding 531,409 square miles to the possessions of the United States.

AUTHORITIES

History of the Pacific States. Vol. XXVIII. Hubert

Howe Bancroft.
Twenty Years of Congress. Vol. II.

Vol. II. James G. Blaine. The Life of William H. Seward. Vol. II. Frederic Ban

croft.

Treaty with Great Britain 1871

[Text derived from Revised Statutes of the United States Relating to the District of Columbia, etc.)

At the close of the Civil war several important questions were pending between the United States and Great Britain. First in importance was the claim for injuries done during the war by the Alabama, the Florida and other Confederate cruisers which were fitted out in English ports and partially manned by English seamen. Besides there were differences in regard to the northwest boundaries which

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former treaties had not satisfactorily settled, the respective rights of American and Canadian fishermen and the trade between the United States and Canada. The correspondence in regard to the Alabama claims was begun as early as 1862. A treaty known as the Johnson-Clarendon convention was signed at London 14 January 1869 but was rejected by the senate “ because although it made provision for the part of the Alabama claims

for individual losses, the provision for the more extensive national losses was not satisfactory to the Senate."

On 26 January 1871 Great Britain proposed the appointment of a joint high commission which should meet at Washington to treat regarding the differences between the two governments concerning the British possessions in North America. To this the United States agreed provided Great Britain would at the same time take up

the Alabama claims. Accordingly five commissioners from each country met at Washington and concluded a treaty which provided for the settlement by arbitration of most of the difficulties.

342 Article I-IX. The Geneva tribunal met in December 1871 and gave a verdict in favor of the United States, awarding a gross sum of $15,500,000 to be distributed by the government. Charles Francis Adams represented the United States.

350 Article XII-XVII. The three commissioners met at Washington in September 1871 and decided in favor of Great Britain, giving her a net award of about $2,000,000. James Frazer represented the United States.

354 Article XVIII-XXV. The three commissioners appointed to decide whether " the privileges accorded to the citizens of the United States under Article XVIII of this treaty are of greater value than those accorded by Articles XIX and XXI of this treaty to the subjects of her Britannic Majesty” met at Halifax in 1877 and decided that

Great Britain gave more than she received and awarded her $5,500,000.

364 Article XXXIV-XLII. The emperor of Germany decided the boundary question in favor of the United States. “ The award leaves us for the first time in the history of the United States as a nation, without a question of disputed boundary between our territory and the possessions of Great Britain,” said President Grant.

AUTHORITIES

The History of the Last Quarter-Century in the United

States. Vol. I. E. Benjamin Andrews. History of the United States. Vol. II. E. Benjamin

Andrews. Mr. Fish and the Alabama Claims. J. C. Bancroft Davis. Charles Francis Adams. Charles Francis Adams.

Annexation of the Hawaiian Islands 1898

[Text derived from United States Statutes at Large, XXX.]

In 1893 a revolution took place in the Hawaiian islands. The queen, Liliuokalani, was only a nominal sovereign, the power being vested in the legislature. The queen attempted to force upon the people a new constitution which should bring the legislature under her control but the attempt failed. The foreigners living in the capital, most of them Americans, took matters into their own hands. The queen was forced to abdicate and a provisional government was set up which promised that negotiations for annexation to the United States should be made. The United States minister in the mean time took it upon himself to proclaim

a protectorate over the islands. The outgoing president, Mr. Harrison, sent an annexation treaty to the senate but it was withdrawn by President Cleveland who disclaimed all that the United States minister had done. On 16 June 1897 a second treaty was sent to congress by President McKinley which had that day been signed by representatives of both governments. The question of annexation was discussed till March 1898 when a joint resolution was introduced into congress. This was finally passed by the house 15 June and by the senate 6 July. The islands were formally transferred to the United States 12 August 1898 and in April 1900 an act was passed providing for a territorial form of government.

AUTHORITIES

America in Hawaii. Edmund Janes Carpenter.
A History of the American People. Vol. V. Woodrow

Wilson.

Recognition of the Independence of Cuba 1898

[Text derived from United States Statutes at Large, XXX.]

On 11 April 1898 President McKinley sent a special message to congress asking for power and authority “to take measures to secure a full and final termination of hostilities between the Government of Spain and the people of Cuba, and to secure in the island the establishment of a stable government, capable of maintaining order and observing its international obligations, insuring peace and tranquility and the security of its citizens as well as our

own, and to use the military and naval forces of the United States as may be necessary for these purposes.” In accordance with this message a joint resolution for the recognition of the independence of Cuba was adopted by congress 20 April 1898.

AUTHORITIES

The War With Spain. Henry Cabot Lodge.
A History of the American People. Vol. V.

Wilson.

Woodrow

Treaty with Spain 1898

[Text derived from United States Statutes at Large, XXX.]

On 17 July 1898 the town of Santiago and all the eastern ports of Cuba were surrendered to the United States forces. On 26 July the Spanish government through M. Cambon, the French ambassador at Washington, began overtures for peace and on 30 July definite terms were proposed. Hostilities were suspended 12 August and a peace protocol was signed at Washington. The United States sent five commissioners to Paris to treat for peace. They met the Spanish commissioners 1 October ånd 10 December the treaty was concluded. The appropriation called for by article III was made 2 March 1899.

AUTHORITIES

The War with Spain. Henry Cabot Lodge.
Senate Document No. 148 (Papers Relating to the Treaty

with Spain) 56th Congress 2nd Session.

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