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TABLE 166.-Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.


[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The preceding table shows, by race of individual, the percentage of 3,711 foreign-born persons who have been in the United States under five, ten, and twenty years, respectively. The grouping in this instance is cumulative. Of the 1,058 Slovaks reported, only 11.9 per cent have a residence of over twenty years' duration; and of the 20 Irish listed, only 10 per cent have been in this country less than twenty years. The Roumanians reported have all been in the United States under ten years, and 67.3 per cent under five years. Croatians, Italians, Lithuanians, Magyars, Russians, and Slovenians, with the exception of a very small percentage, have been in this country less than twenty years, in contrast with the Irish, English, and Germans, who show the largest proportions to have been residents for a longer period than twenty years.


The effect of the influx of races of recent immigration, together with the racial composition of the operating forces of the mines at the present time, can be quickly seen from the table next presented, which shows the number of employees of each race, in a total of 49,137 mine workers for whom information was secured.

TABLE 167.-Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

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Upon examination of the above table it is seen that 24.3 per cent of the total number of employees consist of persons native-born, and 75.7 per cent are of foreign birth; in other words, of the total number of employees, one-fourth are of native and three-fourths of foreign birth. The number of white persons native-born of native father is only 13.1 per cent of the total number, while the percentage of native negroes is less than 2 per cent of the total number of employees. The English, German, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh constitute more than three-fourths of the second generation and 7.4 per cent of the total number of mine employees, indicating a relatively small proportion of the second generation of these races in Pennsylvania as compared with other coal-mining localities. It is noticeable in connection with the second generation also that there are a considerable number of native-born persons whose fathers were born in Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Russia.

The English, German, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh constitute less than one-eighth of the total foreign-born employees and 8.6 per cent of all the employees, which is a further indication of the relatively small proportion of these races in the Pennsylvania bituminous mines. Of

the races of southern and eastern Europe, the most important, numerically speaking, is the Slovak; representatives of that race number 20.3 per cent of all mine employees from whom information was received. Next to the Slovaks in numerical rank are found the Poles, 12.3 per cent of the total number of mine workers being of this race. After the Poles the Magyars appear in greatest numbers, followed by the North Italians, South Italians, Croatians, Slovenians, Russians, and Lithuanians in the order named. Twenty-three races in addition to those above mentioned are found in varying numbers among Pennsylvania bituminous mine workers, but the races for which specific proportions are given form the great mass of coalmining employees and the principal racial elements of the coalmining population. Upon the basis of the information at hand, it is also worthy of note that, of all the races of foreign birth reporting, more than 85 per cent are from southern and eastern Europe, and that the races from this same territorial area constitute about 66 per cent of the total number of persons for whom information was secured.


Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States-General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied-General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied-Daily earningsRelation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Actual annual earnings of representatives of selected racesAnnual family income-Wives at work-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers Sources of family incomeRelative importance of the different sources of family income-[Text Tables 168 to 192 and General Tables 56 to 68.]


Before entering upon a discussion of the present economic condition of races of recent immigration it will be instructive to examine their industrial status before coming to the United States. A comparison of the industrial training and experience of the immigrant mine workers in their native lands not only furnishes a valuable means of understanding their fitness for or efficiency in the mining industry in this country, but also makes clear certain characteristics of the immigrant mine workers and explains many working and other conditions which prevail among them at present.

In connection with the households studied inquiry was made regarding the economic status of recent immigrants before coming to the United States. This information is embodied in the series of tables presented below and includes all persons of both sexes who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country. The first table of the series, which immediately follows, shows the industrial condition abroad of 1,102 females in the households studied who were 16 or more than 16 years old when they arrived in the United States. The presentation is by race.

TABLE 168.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.


[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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