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TABLE 222.—Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and write, by general nativity and race-Continued.

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The above table includes information from 48,747 coal miners. of whom 6,406 are whites native-born of native father, 900 are native negroes, 4,497 are whites native-born of foreign father, and 36,944 are foreign-born. Of the whole number reporting, 85.2 per cent are able to read and 83.5 per cent are able to read and write, or, in other words, 1.7 per cent more are able to read only than are able to read and write. In the case of a very few races this difference between those able to read and those able to read and write is marked, the greatest difference being found in the Lithuanian race. Comparing all native-born persons with all foreign-born, 96.8 per cent of the former are found to be able to read, while only 81.6 of the latter are able to read. Persons native-born of foreign father show 98 per cent of their number able to read and write, as compared with 97.2 per cent of the whites native-born of native father. Of the races native-born of foreign father, it is seen that those whose fathers were born in Scotland, Germany, England, Wales, and Ireland show high percentages of literacy. Those whose fathers were born in Italy show the lowest percentage of literacy, 90.3 per cent being able to read and 88.7 per cent able to read and write. Of the foreign-born, the Swedes show 100 per cent able to read and write. The five next in order are the Scotch, Dutch, English, Germans and Welsh. The Greeks, with 57.3 per cent able to read, and the Ruthenians, with 58 per cent, show the smallest proportions in this class. A larger proportion of the North Italians than of the South Italians are able to read. The Lithuanians, Servians, and Poles show practically the same degree of literacy. The Slovaks, with 81.8 per cent able to read, and the Slovenians, with 83.1 per cent, may be considered slightly more literate than the Lithuanians, Servians, and Poles.

Data were also secured from all persons 10 years of age or over in the households studied. These are presented in the table following, which shows the per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who can read and the per cent who can read and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 223.—Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The above table shows that of the entire number of 4,217 persons, 77.3 per cent can read and 75.3 per cent can both read and write. Of those who can read, 79.9 per cent are males and 73.7 per cent females, while of those who can both read and write, 78.6 per cent are males and 70.6 per cent females. Of the total number reporting, 3,469, of whom 73.1 per cent can read and 70.7 per cent can both read and write, are foreign-born; 748, of whom 96.9 per cent can read and 96.7 per cent can both read and write, are native-born of native father; and 600, of whom 96.5 per cent can both read and write, are nativeborn of foreign father. Of the foreign-born who can read, 76.6 per cent are males and 67.9 per cent females, as compared with 98.7 per cent males and 98.6 per cent females in the group of whites nativeborn of native father, and 97.7 per cent males and 95.2 per cent females in the group of persons native-born of foreign father; while of the foreign-born who can both read and write, 75.1 per cent are males and 64 per cent females, as compared with 96.1 and 98.6 per cent males and females, respectively, in the group of whites nativeborn of native father, and 97.7 and 96.5 per cent of males and females, respectively, in the group native-born of foreign father. Upon the whole, the percentage of literacy of the males is greater than that of the females. Of the foreign-born races, the largest percentage of literacy is shown by the Bohemians and Moravians, 97.5 per cent of whom can both read and write-the males reporting 100 per cent. Following the Bohemians and Moravians are the Germans, who report

96.6 per cent able to read and all of these persons able also to write; and the Magyars, 91 per cent of whom can read and 89.1 per cent of whom can both read and write. Among the Germans the females report a higher per cent of literacy than do the males, the former reporting no illiterates, as compared with 6.1 per cent of the latter; on the other hand, 6.8 per cent of the males and 11.8 per cent of the females of the Magyar race are unable to read, and 9.2 per cent of the males and 13 per cent of the females are unable to read and write. The Slovaks, Roumanians, North Italians, Poles, and Ruthenians follow the Magyars in the order named, the Slovaks reporting 18.6 per cent of their number unable to read and 21.6 per cent unable to read and write, while the Ruthenians report 34.2 per cent unable to read and 34.9 per cent unable to read and write. In the case of the above-mentioned races the males report a smaller per cent of illiteracy than the females, this per cent being greater with some than with others. For instance, the North Italians report 17.8 per cent males, as compared with 37.9 per cent females, unable to read, and 18.2 per cent males, as compared with 38.5 per cent females, unable to read and write. The Poles report 26.8 per cent males and 30 per cent females unable to read, and 29.5 per cent males and 35.5 per cent females unable to read and write.

The Ruthenians are followed by the Lithuanians, Croatians, South Italians and Russians, reporting 41.5; 51, 53.2 and 57 per cent, respectively, unable to read, and 47, 54.2, 53.2 and 58.2 per cent, respectively, unable to read and write. The Russian females show a larger per cent of illiteracy than the females of any other race, over threefourths of them being unable to read or write.

Of the persons native-born of foreign father, the per cent of each race able to read and write is the same as the percentage of persons who can read. The largest percentage of literacy is reported by the Germans, 98.6 per cent, as compared with 98.2 per cent of North Italians, 97.1 per cent of the Poles, and 94.8 per cent of the Slovaks. No illiteracy among the German and North Italian males is reported, while the females of these two races report 2.6 and 4.2 per cent, respectively, illiterate. The Polish females are not so illiterate as the males, the former reporting only 1.9 per cent unable to read and write, as compared with 3.8 per cent of the latter. Little difference exists in the percentage of illiteracy of the males and females of the Slovak race, the males reporting 4.7 per cent, as compared with 5.7 per cent of the females.

Of the native whites, 98.6 per cent can read and 97.3 per cent can read and write. Of those who can both read and write, the females report a larger per cent than the males, or 98.6 per cent, as compared with 96.1 per cent of the males; of those who can read only, the males report 98.7 per cent, as compared with 98.6 per cent of the females.

The literacy of foreign-born persons in the Pennsylvania coal fields is further analyzed in the table next presented. This table sets forth the per cent of foreign-born persons in the households studied 10 years of age or over who can read and write their own or any language, according to years in the United States and race of the individual.

TABLE 224.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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It is apparent from this table that the ability of the foreign-born persons in this locality to read, or to read and write, increases with the length of residence in the United States, the difference being less marked between those who have been in the United States less than five and from five to nine years, than between those with a residence of from five to nine years and ten years or over.

Of the races shown in the table, the Germans alone report the entire number who have been in the United States less than five years able to read or to read and write; and the Bohemians and Moravians alone report the entire number who have been in the United States from five to nine years and ten years or over with ability to read or to read and write. All of the Germans for whom information was obtained have been in the United States either less than five years or ten years or over, while none of the Roumanians studied have been in the United States longer than nine years. Each of these races, however, reports a smaller proportion with ability to read, and to read and write, in the longer than in the shorter period of residence. As between the two races, it will be noted that a much larger proportion of Roumanians than of Germans are illiterate. While the South Italians and Poles each report as literate a smaller proportion of those who have been in the United States from five to nine years than under five years, they at the same time report as literate a larger proportion of those who have been in the United States ten years or over than of those with a residence of from five to nine years. The per cent of Croatians, on the other hand, who can read or read and write decreases as the length of residence increases.

The Bohemians and Moravians and Magyars each report proportions with ability to read and to read and write largely in excess of those shown in the total for all races, while the Croatians, South Italians, and Lithuanians each show a considerably lower proportion than that shown in the total in each specified age group. The Rus

sians who have been in the United States less than five years report much smaller proportions with ability to read and to read and write than do the South Italians or Lithuanians, while the proportions of literate Russians among those in the United States from five to nine years and ten years or over are considerably in excess of the proportions of South Italians.

As the preceding table affords a study of the effect of residence in this country upon the literacy of the immigrants in the Pennsylvania coal fields, so from the following may be formulated the relation thereto of the age of the immigrant at time of arrival. The table presents the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over in this field who can now read and write, according to age at time of entering the United States and the race of the individual.

TABLE 225.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

Race of individual.

born.]

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In the case of each race represented in the preceding table there is apparent a greater adaptability and progression on the part of those who came to this country when they were under 14 years of age. In other words, in every instance a larger per cent of those who came before they were 14 can at present read and write than of those who came after passing that age. While there is but slight difference between the younger and older persons in the high percentages of the Germans and of the Magyars, it is so striking in the other cases as to mean one of two things: Either those who came as children have been given an opportunity to learn abroad by their parents or have been taught to read and write English since arrival; or those who came to this country as older persons-presumably the greater part of them being adults-originated in a very illiterate class in Europe and went to work upon arrival without further education. It is significant that among those who came prior to the age of 14, only the Magyars and Croatians show a smaller percentage able to read and write than able to read only.

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