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TABLE 89.-Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and by general nativity and race of head of household Continued.

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Of 3,680 persons included in the foregoing table, practically the same proportion, or 20 per cent, are from 20 to 29 or 30 to 44 years of age the proportion who are from 6 to 13, under 6, or 45 years of age or over, following in the order named, and less than 10 per cent being either from 14 to 15 or 16 to 19 years of age. No marked difference is shown between the proportions of each nativity group who are of each specified age. The several races are fairly well balanced among the various age groups except that of 45 years or over, where the races of older immigration, or the French Canadian, English, German, and Irish, show a much larger proportion than do the Hebrews, Poles, or Slovaks. The difference between the proportion of males and females in each specified age group is less than 5 per cent. Although certain races show a larger difference than this, in no case does it vary sufficiently to deserve specific reference.

CHAPTER VII.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-Status of children in the households studied-CitizenshipAbility to speak English-[Text Tables 90 to 95 and General Tables 88 to 93].

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

Home ownership by families whose heads were of foreign birth may be considered not only an indication of thrift but also exhibits a tendency toward permanent settlement, and the facts in this connection relative to the families the heads of which are employed in Community A are set forth in the following table, according to general nativity and race of head of family.

TABLE 90.-Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Of 742 families studied, 8.1 per cent own homes. The families. whose heads are native-born of foreign father show over 9 per cent owning homes, those whose heads are of foreign birth show over 8 per cent, and those whose heads are native-born whites of native father show 5.9 per cent.

Of the families whose heads are native-born of foreign father, those whose heads are of German parentage show a considerably higher percentage than the families whose heads are of Irish parentage who own homes. Of the families whose heads are of foreign birth, those

whose heads are Germans show 32.3 per cent owning homes, followed by the families whose heads are Irish with over 12 per cent and those whose heads are English with over 7 per cent owning homes. The families the heads of which are of other specified races show small proportions, while no families the heads of which are Hebrews own homes.

STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The status of children in the households studied may be seen from the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of father and birthplace of child, the number and percentage of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work.

TABLE 91.-Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.]

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The preceding table shows that of children born in the United States, whose fathers are native-born white, 96.7 per cent are at school, 2 per cent are at home, and 1.3 per cent are at work. The children born in the United States, as well as those born abroad, whose fathers are French Canadians or Poles, show a smaller proportion at school and a larger proportion at home or at work, than do native-born white children whose fathers are native-born. Of the children whose fathers are foreign-born it is seen that children who were born abroad of Polish parentage show the largest proportion at home or at work and the smallest proportion at school.

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which foreign-born males in the households studied in the community take an interest in acquiring, or have attained, citizenship is exhibited in the table following, which shows, by race of individual, the present political condition of foreign-born males in the households studied who had been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at the time of arrival in this country.

TABLE 92.-Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

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Of 267 foreign-born males who have been in the United States five. years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at the time of coming, 35.6 per cent are fully naturalized and 8.6 per cent have first. papers only. The Germans show 77.8 per cent and the English and Irish over 70 per cent fully naturalized, as contrasted with only 25 per cent of the French Canadians and 7 per cent of the Poles. The Irish show the highest per cent having first papers only, followed, in the order named, by the English, Poles, and French Canadians. The table further shows that no Germans have first papers only.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

As regards ability to speak English, the following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 6 years of age or over in the households studied who were able to speak English.

TABLE 93.-Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. however, are for all non-English-speaking races.]

The totals,

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Of 1,821 persons the preceding table shows that 76.2 per cent speak English, the males showing a larger proportion than the females, or 81.7 per cent, as compared with 70.6 per cent. A larger proportion of the males than the females who are of foreign birth speak English. But the females who are native-born of foreign father show a larger proportion who speak English than do the males. The German race alone shows a larger proportion of females than males who speak English. The Poles show the smallest proportion of males or females with ability to speak English.

In the following table a comparison is possible of the relative proportions of the younger and older immigrants of non-English-speaking races able to speak English. The table shows, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over, in the households studied, able to speak English.

TABLE 94.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Of 1,310 foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over, information for whom appears in the above table, 92.4 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age at the time of coming to the United States and 58.8 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over at the time of coming can speak English. The Germans and Slovaks show 100 per cent, the French Canadians and the Hebrews show over 90 per cent, and the North Italians and Poles show over 80 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age at the time of arrival who can now speak English.

The Hebrews and Germans show over 95 per cent, the North Italians over 85 per cent, the French Canadians and the Slovaks over 50 per cent, and the Poles over 45 per cent who can speak English who were 14 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States.

The

The progress made by persons of non-English-speaking races in acquiring an ability to speak English after designated periods of residence in this country is set forth in the table next presented. table shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over, in the households studied, able to speak English.

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