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OCCUPATIONS OF THE SECOND GENERATION COMPARED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of individual, the percentage of the males in the households studied, 16 years of age or over, who were in the hardware and cutlery industry:

TABLE 110.-Per cent of males 16 years of age or over in hardware and cutlery, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males born in the United States, and also 20 or more born abroad. The native-born are shown for comparative purposes.]

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In the above table the Germans show the highest percentage of males engaged in the manufacture of hardware and cutlery; those who were born in the United States of German father showing a considerably smaller proportion than those who were born abroad. Over 10 per cent of the French Canadians and Swedes who were born abroad, as contrasted with 2.4 per cent of those who were nativeborn of French-Canadian fathers, and 4.2 per cent who were nativeborn of Swedish father are in the hardware and cutlery industry. Only 3.1 per cent of the native whites born of native father are employed in the above-mentioned industry. The French Canadians show the highest percentage of foreign-born males who are otherwise employed; but those who were born in the United States of FrenchCanadian father show 97.6 per cent otherwise employed. A larger proportion of native-born employees of German and Swedish father than of foreign-born German and Swedish employees are otherwise engaged. Of the males who are native-born whites of native father 96.9 per cent are otherwise employed.

OCCUPATIONS ENTERED BY IMMIGRANTS.

The Irish race, because they were adapted to farming, engaged at first in that occupation, but as industry developed after 1850 many found employment in the factories. The plated silverware, the lamp and chandelier, the hardware and other factories engaged Irish as workmen and the farms employed fewer men of this race as the industries developed. The English, many of them from Sheffield and Birmingham, entered the silverware and cutlery industries, in the development of which they were instrumental. The Scotch and the

few Welsh who came to Meriden largely entered the cutlery industry and some into the plated silverware industry. With few exceptions the French Canadians engaged in the occupation of burnishing in the silverware industry.

Immigrants from Germany entered the cutlery industry and found employment as designers and other skilled workers in the silverware industry. The Swedes secured work in the hardware industry, the plated-silverware industry, the firearm industry, and in other industries. The Italians went into the fruit business and into small storekeeping as grocers. Italian immigrants have been employed as street and foundry laborers and where unskilled work was to be done. The Poles, Lithuanians, Slovaks, and Slovenians also took up the unskilled work of the foundries and the firearms and lamp industries. The Greek immigrants have also found employment of this class and in the candy, fruit, and bootblack trades. The Syrians are mostly cobblers. The Hebrews have gone into the junk business, the peddling, and clothing trades, while the Chinese are all engaged in the laundry business.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The annual earnings of male heads of families studied are next considered. The first table presented shows, by general nativity and race of husband, the number and percentage of husbands at work, together with their average annual earnings.

TABLE 111.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race.

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Of 370 husbands in the 391 families selected for study in the foregoing table, 99.7 per cent are at work and earn an average of $586 a year. All the native-born, of either native or foreign father, and all but one of the foreign-born are at work. The average earnings of the native-born of foreign father are the highest and of the foreign

born the lowest. Only one race, the German, shows a proportion of husbands idle. The average earnings are the highest for the Swedes and lowest for the Poles.

The range in annual earnings of male heads of families is set forth in the following table, according to general nativity and race of husband:

TABLE 112.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6.]

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The total number of male persons in the foregoing table is 369. For that number the average earnings per year are $586. Less than 5 per cent of the total number of males earn over $1,000 per year, while less than 1 per cent earn under $100 per year. Slightly more than 50 per cent of the total number earn under $600 per year. of the native-born of native father earn under $200, and less than 5 per cent of the foreign-born earn under that amount each year. The foreign-born show the largest proportion earning under $1,000, thus indicating smaller earnings for that general nativity group than for the native-born. The South Italian is the only one of the foreignborn races reporting any males who earn under $100 per year. that race the proportion is less than 5 per cent. Of the races that are computed, the Swedes show the smallest proportion earning under $600, while the Poles show nearly 95 per cent as earning under that amount. None of the Poles earn over $800. The Swedes show the largest proportion earning over $1,000. It is 5.5 per cent. None of the Poles, South Italians, or Germans earn over that amount. The proportion of French Canadians earning over $1,000 is less than 5 per cent.

For

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In the table next submitted, the average and range of annual earnings of all males, in the households studied, who were 18 years of age or over, are shown by general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 113.- Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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The above table shows that of the males 18 years of age or over for whom information is secured 4.3 per cent earn under $200 a year, 28.4 per cent under $400 a year, 59.9 per cent under $600 a year, and 96.9 per cent under $1,000 a year. The proportion of individuals. earning under $400 and under $600 a year, respectively, is largest for the native-born of native father, second largest for the foreign-born, and smallest for the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreignborn the Poles have the largest proportion of individuals earning under $400 per year and the Poles and South Italians, in the order mentioned, the largest and the Swedes the smallest proportion of individuals earning under $600 per year.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table following shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of all females, in the households studied, who were 18 years of age or over and who were working for wages.

TABLE 114.- Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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In the series of tabulations which are next presented, the average amount and range of annual family income are studied, together with the different sources of family income and their relative importance. The following table, the first submitted in this connection, shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount.

TABLE 115.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. One family is included which reports income as "none."]

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