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The methods employed by the natives and immigrants in conducting their businesses are practically the same. The immigrant establishments are usually much smaller than those conducted by the American merchants, and the immigrants consequently take little interest in the business men's association and the board of trade. There are, however, a number of immigrant merchants in the community who conduct important businesses and who employ thoroughly up-to-date and American methods. English-speaking immigrants and the Germans associate freely with native Americans in business matters from the time of their entrance into the community. Such races as the Italian, Polish, French Canadian, and Greek, however, hold themselves aloof from the Americans when they first enter the city, but after a few years, when the barriers of language and racial prejudice are in a manner removed, business association between the natives and immigrants becomes general. The only possible exception to this tendency that can be mentioned is the clannish attitude displayed by the Poles. The number of Poles who are engaged in business in the community is small, and they affect conditions in the community very slightly.

The immigrants found in business in the community are generally of the highest class found among their respective races and are those who have succeeded best under their new environment. The immigrants who are the proprietors of businesses hold a recognized place in the community. They are generally looked on as among the most progressive of their people by both natives and the aliens. The immigrants in business are chiefly old residents of the community who first worked in the industrial plants; when their savings were sufficient they branched out for themselves and started small stores or businesses. In some cases the stores were started and conducted by the wives while the husbands continued at work in the other occupations. Among their own people the immigrant business. men stand higher than in the community proper. They are spoken of as having accomplished something, and their success is given a magnified value. The community in general, however, respects the immigrant business men, and, in case of old residents, there is no difference in the standing of the men of foreign birth and the natives. The immigrant storekeepers from southern and eastern Europe have been residents of the city for a comparatively short period of time and transact business on a much smaller scale than do the older races in point of residence, yet they receive an acknowledged standing in the community.

IMMIGRANTS IN THE PROFESSIONS.

Very few immigrants or their children in the community are represented in the professions.

The table next presented shows the number of Americans and immigrants and their children in Community B who were engaged in the professions in the year 1908.

TABLE 146.-Native Americans and immigrants in professions, by race.

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An inspection of the above table reveals that among the Irish in the community are found 5 priests, 5 lawyers, 3 physicians, 2 dentists, and 1 druggist. The English include among their number 3 dentists, 3 physicians, 2 veterinary surgeons, 1 druggist, and 1 architect. Among the Germans are found 3 ministers, 1 priest, 1 dentist, 1 lawyer, 1 physician, and 4 druggists. Among the Polish population the parish priest is the only professional man. The French Canadians have in the professions 3 physicians and 2 druggists. The number of professional men among all other races in the community are shown to be very small, while among such races as the Slovak, Lithuanian, Slovenian, Greek, Syrian, and Chinese there are none. The majority of the professional men among the immigrants in the community received their training in American institutions. The immigrant pharmacists are especially well equipped for the practice of their profession; the physicians are not so highly regarded and practice almost entirely among their respective races. The ministers and priests among the foreign races are held in high esteem by the natives. in their calling, and enjoy a recognized standing in the community.

CHAPTER IX.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-Investments-School attendance-Status of children in the households studied-Citizenship-Ability to speak English-Churches-Libraries Americanization―[Text Tables 147 to 152 and General Tables 125 to 130].

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

Home ownership by families the heads of which were of foreign birth may be considered as a strong indication of permanent settlement, and the facts in this connection relative to the families the heads of which were employed in Community B are set forth in the following table according to general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 147.-Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Of the 458 families included in the above table, only 22.5 per cent own homes. The most remarkable thing about the foregoing totals is that the foreign-born show a much larger proportion of families owning home than do the native-born of foreign father. The proportion for the foreign-born is 25.2 per cent and for the native-born of foreign father only 14 per cent. The native-born of German fathers show a proportion of 18.6 per cent who own homes as compared with 14.3 per cent shown by the native-born of Irish fathers. Of the foreign-born races, the Germans show the largest proportion

of families owning home. For that race the percentage is 43.9 as compared with 14.5 per cent of the French Canadians and 16 per cent of the Poles. Of the Swedes 33.3 per cent own homes as compared with 21.2 per cent of the South Italians.

INVESTMENTS.

The races which are the most temperate are those that show the greatest tendency to save. The German, French Canadian, and Swedish races are noted for their saving ability in addition to their temperate habits. The Jews and Italians are also credited with being great savers, as they, too, are very temperate. The Slavic races and Greeks do not make as much money in proportion as do these other races, but, with a lower standard of living than the native, exercise stricter economy, and the members of these races save money, and are willing to sacrifice comfort, health, and even necessary means of subsistence in order to lay aside a certain amount.

Home ownership is one of the most hopeful signs shown by immigrant races in this community. Those races which have resided the longest own the greatest amount of property, but it seems to be an almost universal trait of all the foreign races that after the desire for naturalization comes the desire to own a home. It may be explained partly by the reason that both of these privileges have been difficult of attainment in the old country, or it may be the desire to pose as a person of property; nevertheless, the owning of property seems to be a universal goal. The English-speaking races stand first in the ownership of homes. These are followed closely by the Germans, Swedes, and French Canadians in the order mentioned. Small numbers of North and South Italians own their homes, and a still smaller number of those belonging to the Slavic races are property

owners.

As showing more clearly the extent to which representatives of the immigrant races have acquired property, the following statement is submitted:

Property held in Community B by principal immigrant non-English-speaking races, January, 1909.

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Those races that intend to settle permanently, if they are in business generally place their net profits at interest in banks until a sufficient amount has been saved to purchase property, usually a dwelling house. Those persons who intend to return to Europe, single men or men whose families reside abroad, usually forward their money to their native country. This is notable in the case of the Italians. In some cases the immigrant is forced to send his earnings abroad to pay his passage money, which he borrowed. Investments in the form of stocks and bonds are seldom made by the immigrant, even after long residence in the country. The only people in Community B of foreign race making such investments have been the Germans and English, and these only in rare instances. The savings bank, the commercial bank, real estate, land, and the cheaper forms of insurance, in most cases child insurance, are the only forms of investment into which those of foreign races put their savings.

The extent to which the foreign-born persons make remittances to their native countries is set forth in the statements next submitted:

Money orders sent abroad through Community B post-office, December 6, 1907, to December 5, 1908.

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Money orders to Europe and Asia by private agent, by countries, from Community B,

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