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of residence in the United States was known (eliminating the 895 of unknown length of residence), slightly more than 25 per cent (2,151 persons) had been resident in the country for a less period than six years, while only about 42 per cent (3,493 persons) had been in the country less than ten years. Indeed, approximately as many had been in the United States more than fifteen years (3,433) as had been here less than ten years (3,493); and more than one-fourth of the foreign-born had come to the United States twenty or more years before.

3. The number of persons native-born of native parents is greater than the number of foreign-born below the age of 15, but from 15 onward the foreign-born are more numerous. This is indicative of how largely foreign in character are likely to be the birth additions to the population. Putting aside the question of parentage of the 1900 population, comparison of the native-born (of both native and foreign parents) with the foreign-born shown in the following table brings out this significant fact: Of females between the ages of 19 and 45 (which may be taken as the average child-bearing period) the foreign-born compose 44 per cent of the total number.

Population, 1900, by age periods and general nativity and sex.

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4. Of the English-speaking tendency of the second generation of the immigrant races something is shown in the following statement. While there were 1,345 persons 10 or more years of age who⚫ were unable to speak English, only 3 of these were native-born:

Persons 10 or more years of age who can not speak English, by general nativity and color.

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5. The immigrant races are largely represented in the period of childhood and adolescence as shown in the statement next submitted. Of the 7,601 persons between the ages of 4 and 21, less than 27 per cent were whites of native parentage. Thus the coming generation the most impressionable and educable portion of the population, were children of foreign parents to the extent of nearly 69 per cent; and the influences affecting this portion of the population will have much to do with the future of the community.

Persons 5 to 20 years of age (inclusive), by general nativity and color.

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It appears, then, that the immigrant had entered largely into the life of the community in the year 1900. Even without the addition of further arrivals it was inevitable that the presence of the immigrants should be felt and the question of their progress and assimilation was one of no slight importance. The following table shows the number of persons of foreign parentage in the community in 1900, by birthplace of parents:

TABLE 162.-Number of persons in Community C, by general nativity and by birthplace of parents, 1900.

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ESTIMATED POPULATION AT THE PRESENT TIME (1909).

In 1907 the population of Community C was estimated to be about 44,000." The increase, however, over the population of 1900 was not due entirely to births or immigration, but in part to an extension of the corporate limits of the city so as to embrace the entire township. Assuming the slight decrease in population caused by the business depression of 1907-8 to have been hardly more than equalized by births and by new immigrant arrivals during the past half year of renewed industrial activity, a conservative estimate places the present population of the city at a little over 44,000. To determine what part of this population is of native birth would be difficult. Probably, however, the number of native-born persons is

a Annual reports of the officials and departments of the city for the year ending Mar. 31, 1908, p. iv.

slightly over half of the total population, or from 23,000 to 25,000. Whatever relation persons of native birth may bear to the total population, it is evident from the census figures for 1900 that those of foreign parentage compose the bulk of it. The foreign-born portion of the population probably comprises a little less than one-half of the total population, but no very accurate estimate can be made. Putting aside the question of place of birth, it is possible to approximate the number of persons of each of the principal races in the community.

Estimated population of Community C, 1909.

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The above shows such an approximation. In general, these figures may be taken as fair estimates, having been obtained after consulting a considerable number of persons, representing all of the races in question. Twenty races have been indicated; a few others are present in the city, but in such insignificant numbers that it has not been thought worth while to endeavor to trace them.

It will be observed that the Irish constitute over one-fourth of the total population. The Germans and Swedes each form approximately one-sixth of the population, while fourth in numerical strength stand the Americans (white), having less than one-sixth of the whole number of persons in the city. It appears that the Irish, Germans, and Swedes together constitute 61 per cent of the population. While the total of all the immigrant races (including both native and foreign-born persons) is over 84 per cent of the total population, yet the English-speaking races (American, Irish, English, and Scotch) compose not far from half (43 per cent) of the population.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

A further insight into the character of recent and past immigration to the community is also afforded by the series of tables which immediately follow and which show the length of residence in the United States of foreign-born wage-earners and members of their 48296°-VOL 17-11-16

households. The table first submitted, which follows below, shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born wage-earners of the community who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 163.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Information was obtained for 3,204 foreign-born employees of this industry in this locality. Of this number, 46.8 per cent have been in the United States less than five years, 21.8 per cent from five to nine, 8.6 per cent from ten to fourteen, and 9.6 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, while 13 per cent have been in this country twenty years or over. The proportion of males in each period of residence group varies only slightly from the proportions shown in the total for all employees. On the other hand, by far the largest proportion of females, 77.1 per cent, have been in the United States less than five years, while the proportion of females in each of the other periods of residence is somewhat below that shown for all employees. It will be noted that, of those males with a residence. less than five years, the South Italians, with 65.8 per cent, show a

considerably larger proportion than the Poles or Russians and a much larger proportion than the North Italians, who, in turn, show a considerably larger proportion than the Lithuanians or Germans and a very much larger proportion than the Swedes or Irish. The Irish again show the smallest proportion, or 6.7 per cent, with a residence of from five to nine years, while the proportion of the other races range from 31.2 per cent of the Russians to 18.4 per cent of the South Italians. Among those who have been in the United States from ten to fourteen and from fifteen to nineteen years, the difference in the proportions are not so marked as in the preceding periods of residence; while, of those with a residence of twenty years or over, the Irish, Swedes, and Germans show 69.3, 36.5, and 36.1 per cent, respectively, as compared with proportions of the more recent immigrant races ranging from 7 per cent of the Lithuanians to 1.8 per cent of the Russians.

Among the females, the Germans with 51 per cent, while showing a very much larger proportion than the Swedes or Irish, show a considerably smaller proportion than the North Italians and a very much smaller proportion than is shown by any other more recent immigrant race with a residence less than five years in the United States, the Poles showing the largest proportion, or 83.9 per cent. The differences in the proportions among those with a residence of from five to nine, ten to fourteen, and from fifteen to nineteen years are very much less marked than among those with a residence of less than five years, or twenty years or over. In this latter period the Irish show 71.4 and the Swedes 50 per cent, while the Germans show 4.1, and the Lithuanians and Russians each 2 per cent, the other races reporting no proportion with a residence of twenty years or over in the United States. The totals shown in the above table are but a combination of the males and females, and are presented so that the proportions of all employees in each period of residence group may be noted, irrespective of sex.

The following table sets forth, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years:

TABLE 164.-Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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