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ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The extent to which the male heads of families studied were regularly employed, together with their average annual earnings, are set forth in the following table. This table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the proportion of husbands who are at work.

TABLE 173.—Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of 683 husbands in 705 families selected for study 99.4 per cent are at work, whose average yearly earnings are $534. The husbands who are native whites born of native father and those who are native-born of foreign father each show 100 per cent, while the foreign-born husbands show 99.3 per cent at work. The husbands who are native-born of foreign father show average yearly earnings of $766, as contrasted with $713 for the husbands who are nativeborn whites of native father, and $501 which is the average yearly earnings of the foreign-born husbands. Of the foreign-born husbands 100 per cent of the German, Polish, and Ruthenian husbands are at work, while the South Italians show the smallest per cent of husbands at work. The Swedish husbands show the highest average yearly earnings, or $682, and the Ruthenian husbands the lowest, or $350.

The range in the earnings per year of male heads of families is shown in the table following, by general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 174.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of

individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6.

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The average yearly earnings of 679 male heads of selected families are shown by the above table to be $534-less than 1 per cent earning under $100; 2.5 per cent under $200; 29.9 per cent under $400; 69.7 per cent under $600; 90.4 per cent under $800, and 96.3 per cent under $1,000. The foreign-born show a larger proportion than either the native-born of foreign father or the native-born of native father earning under each specified amount, consequently the lowest average earning. Although the native-born of foreign father show a larger proportion than the native-born of native father earning under $600 or under $1,000 per annum they show a smaller proportion earning under $800 and none under $400-the native-born of native father showing 1.5 per cent earning under the latter amount. The average earnings of the native-born of foreign father are $766 and of the native-born of native father $713.

Of the foreign-born races the lowest average earnings are shown for the South Italian, Ruthenian, and Slovak-none of these races earning as high as $800 per annum.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied.

TABLE 175.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of 1,244 males 18 years of age or over shown in the above table 5.4 per cent earn under $200, 43.3 per cent earn under $400, 79.1 per cent earn under $600, and 97.6 per cent earn under $1,000 per year. The foreign-born males show the highest percentage earning under each specified amount per year, the males who are native-born of foreign father follow with somewhat smaller proportions, while the males who are native whites born of native father show the lowest percentage earning under each specified amount. Of the nativeborn of foreign father the males of German parentage show 7 per cent earning under $200 as contrasted with no males of Swedish parentage. The males of Swedish parentage show a higher percentage earning under $400, under $600, and under $1,000 than do the males of German parentage. Of the foreign-born males the Russians show the largest proportion which is 26.7 per cent earning under $200; none of the Swedes earn under this amount. The Ruthenians show the highest percentage and the Swedes the lowest percentage earning under $400 and the same order is followed in the column showing those earning under $600. The South Italians, Poles, Russians, Ruthenians, and Slovaks show 100 per cent; the Lithuanians, 99.4 per cent; the Swedes, 95.5 per cent, and the Germans, 91.5 per cent earning under $1,000.

The males who are native whites born of native father show average yearly earnings of $701 as contrasted with $563, which is the average yearly earnings of the males who are native-born of foreign father, and $442 which is the average yearly earnings of the

foreign-born males. Of the native-born of foreign father the males of English parentage show the highest and those of Swedish parentage the lowest average yearly earnings. Of the foreign-born males, the Swedes show the highest and the Ruthenians the lowest average yearly earnings.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied:

TABLE 176.-Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of 209 females 18 years of age or over, shown in the above table, 32.1 per cent earn under $200, 75.1 per cent earn under $300, 94.7 per cent earn under $400, and 96.2 per cent earn under $500. The average earnings per year for all females for whom information was secured is $248. The foreign-born females show a considerably higher percentage earning each specified amount than the females who are native-born of foreign father, the average yearly earnings of the latter being $305 as contrasted with $224 for the former. Of the females who are native-born of foreign father those of Swedish parentage show average yearly earnings of $370, and the females of German parentage show average yearly earnings of $305. Of the foreign-born females, the Ruthenians show a higher per cent earning under $200 and under $300 than the Poles; but females of each of 48296°-VOL 17-11-17

these races show 100 per cent earning under $400. The Polish females show average yearly earnings of $238 as contrasted with $158 which is the average yearly earnings of the Slovak females.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

In the series of tables next presented, the yearly income of the families studied, together with the several sources of family income and their relative importance, are considered. The first table submitted in this connection shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount.

TABLE 177.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.}

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Of 705 families selected for study and shown in the above table, 4.4 per cent have a total yearly income under $300, 30.4 per cent a total yearly income under $500, 65.1 per cent under $750, 83 per cent under $1,000 and 96.5 per cent a total yearly income of under $1,500. Families the heads of which are of foreign birth show the highest percentage having an income of under $300, under $500, under $750 and under $1,000. Families the heads of which are native whites born of native father show the next highest percentage having an income of under $300 and under $500, and families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show the second largest proportions having a total income of under $750 and under $1,000. The families whose heads are native whites born of native father show the highest percentage having a total yearly income of under $1,500 followed in the order mentioned by the families the heads of which are of foreign birth and those whose heads are native-born of foreign father.

Families whose heads are native-born of foreign father show an average family income of $885 as contrasted with $841 for families the heads of which are native whites born of native father and $686

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