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for families the heads of which are of foreign birth. Of the families whose heads of which are foreign-born, those whose heads are Slovaks show the highest percentage, having an income of under $300, while no families the heads of which are Germans and Swedes have an average income of under this amount. The families whose heads are Ruthenians show the highest percentage, having an income of under $500, under $750, and under $1,000. Families the heads of which are South Italians, Ruthenians, and Slovaks show 100 per cent having an average yearly income of under $1,500, while families whose heads are Germans show only 83.3 per cent. The families the heads of which are Germans show an average family income of $1,078 as contrasted with $482 which is the average income in families the heads of which are Ruthenians.

WIVES AT WORK.

The disposition of wives to engage in occupations outside the home in order to supplement the earnings of their husbands is indicated by the following table. This table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the proportion of wives at work.

TABLE 178.-Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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The preceding table shows that in 705 selected families there are 697 wives, 4.6 per cent of whom are at work, their average yearly earnings being $220. Of the wives in families the heads of which are of foreign birth, 5.2 per cent, as contrasted with only 1.4 per cent of the wives in families the heads of which are native whites born of native father are employed. Of wives in families the heads of which are of foreign birth, the Ruthenians show 11.5 per cent, closely followed by the Polish wives with 10.6 per cent who are at work. The wives in the families the heads of which are Slovaks show 6.6 per cent and the German wives only 4.4 per cent as contrasted with no South Italians, Lithuanian or Swedish wives who are working. The

Polish wives show average yearly earnings of $282 as contrasted with $225, which is the average yearly earnings of wives in the families the heads of which are of foreign birth.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

It has been seen that only a small proportion of the wives in the families studied were regularly employed for wages outside the home. On the other hand, a considerable proportion of the wives supplements the earnings of the heads by keeping boarders or lodgers. The extent to which this is done is indicated by the following table, which shows, by yearly earnings of husbands and by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 179.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

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a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.

This column includes 4 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."

TABLE 180.-Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.j

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The preceding table shows that in families where the earnings of husband are under $400 per year, 63.9 per cent of the wives have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. In the families where the husbands earn $400 and under $600, 37.8 per cent of the wives have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. In families where the earnings of husband are $600 or over, 16.7 per cent of the wives have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. Of the total number of families studied, irrespective of the earnings of husband, 39.4 per cent of the wives have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. The families whose heads are of foreign birth show a much higher percentage of wives having employment or keeping boarders or fodgers in each column and in the total than is exhibited by the wives in families whose heads are native whites born of native father, and those whose heads are native-born of foreign father. Of the families whose heads are of foreign birth, the Poles show the highest percentage of wives having employment or keeping boarders in each specified group.

In every instance where the percentage has been computed, the wives in families the heads of which are Swedes show the lowest percentage who are employees or keeping boarders or lodgers.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The sources of family income are shown in detail by the table next presented. This table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 181.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 705 families selected for study, 96.3 per cent have an income from earnings of husband, 4.5 per cent have an income from earnings of wife, 20.9 per cent from contributions of children, 35.3 per cent from payments of boarders and lodgers and 21.1 per cent from other sources. The families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show 100 per cent, those the heads of which are native-born whites of native father, 97.1 per cent, and those the heads of which are of foreign birth 96 per cent having an income from the earnings of husband. The families the heads of which are foreign-born show the highest percentage having an income from earnings of wife, contributions of children and payments of boarders or lodgers. The families the heads of which are native-born whites of native father show the next highest percentage having an income from wife, and the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father the next highest percentage having an income from contributions of children, and from payments of boarders and lodgers. The families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show the highest percentage having an income from other sources, closely followed by the families the heads of which are native-born whites of native father and those whose heads are of foreign birth.

Of the families whose heads are of foreign birth, those whose heads are Ruthenians, Lithuanians, and Poles show the highest percentage having an income from earnings of husband and the families the heads of which are Ruthenians and Poles the highest percentage having an income from earnings of wife. The families the heads which are Germans show the highest percentage having contributions from children, and those whose heads are Poles the highest percentage having an income from payments of boarders and lodgers. The families whose heads are Germans show the highest percentage having an income from other sources.

In the following table, in which the sources of family income are again shown in detail, each source specified is exclusive of every other source. In other words, the proportion of families appearing under each designated source have their entire income from that

source.

TABLE 182.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 705 families studied in the above table, the highest percentage have their entire income from the husband, the next highest percentage have their entire income from husband and boarders or lodgers and 24.5 per cent have their entire income from sources or combination of sources not before specified. Over 9 per cent have the entire income from husband and children and 3 per cent have the entire income from husband and wife; but only small proportions have the entire income from the other sources specified in the table. The families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show 64.5 per cent, those whose heads are native-born whites of native father show 58.6 per cent, while those whose heads are of foreign birth show only 30 per cent having the entire income from the husband. The families the heads of which are foreign-born show proportions having the entire income from each source specified in the table, except that of husband, wife, and children, but the largest percentage have their entire income from the husband, husband and boarders and lodgers and sources or combination of sources_not before specified. The families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father receive their entire income from husband, husband and children, and sources or combination of sources not before speci

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