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fied. The greatest proportion of the families whose heads are native-born whites of native father receive their entire income from husband, sources or combination of sources not before specified, and from husband and children. Of the families whose heads are foreign-born, those whose heads are Swedes and Slovaks show the highest percentage having entire income from husband. Those whose heads are Poles show the highest percentage having their entire income from husband and wife. Those whose heads are Germans show the highest percentage having their entire income from husband and children, and the families whose heads are Ruthenians. show the highest percentage having their entire income from husbands and boarders or lodgers. The families whose heads are Germans show the highest percentage having entire income from sources or combination of sources not before specified.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The relative importance of the different sources of income of the families studied in the community may be seen from the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of total yearly income from the husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 183.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only race with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The foregoing table shows that of 705 selected families 72.4 per cent of the total income is derived from earnings of husband, 1.4 per cent is derived from the earnings of wife, 12.8 per cent from contributions of children, 6.9 per cent from payments of boarders or lodgers, and 6.5 per cent from other sources.

The largest proportion of the income in families whose heads are of each nativity group is derived from the husband; families the heads

of which are native-born of foreign father showing the highest percentage, and the families whose heads are native whites born of native father, and those whose heads are of foreign birth following in the order named with smaller percentages. In the families the heads of which are foreign-born a higher percentage of total income is derived from earnings of wife, contributions of children, and payments of boarders or lodgers than in families the heads of which are native whites born of native father and native-born of foreign father which follow in the order named. The families the heads of which are native whites born of native father show a higher percentage of the total income from other sources than do the families of foreign birth and those whose heads are native-born of foreign father.

The families the heads of which are Slovaks show the highest percentage of the total income from earnings of husband; the families the heads of which are Ruthenians show a higher percentage receiving total income from earnings of wife than do the families whose heads are of other specified races. The families the heads of which are Swedes show the highest percentage and those whose heads are Ruthenians the lowest percentage of total earnings from contributions of children. Families the heads of which are Ruthenians show the highest percentage and those whose heads are Swedes the lowest percentage of total income from payments of boarders or lodgers. The families the heads of which are Germans show the highest percentage and those whose heads are Slovaks the lowest percentage of the total income from other sources.

CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Reasons for the employment of immigrants-Regularity of employment The immigrant and organized labor-Shifting tendencies of the labor supply-Local prejudice [Text Tables 184 to 186 and General Tables 144].

REASONS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF IMMIGRANTS.

The history of immigration to the city, as already seen, has been in the main a history of industrial development.

The demand for labor, which the local supply was unable to meet, has been the great cause of immigration. The introduction of machinery, with its attendant opportunity to make use of low-priced labor, has made the employment of the immigrant not only possible, but highly profitable. All the 16 principal immigrant races (Irish, German, Swedish, Polish, Italian, Lithuanian, Hebrew, English, Scotch, Slovak, Armenian, French Canadian, Persian, Ruthenian, Russian, and Greek) without exception have contributed workmen to the factories. The Irish, English, Hebrews, and Greeks might have settled in the community had there existed no opportunities for industrial employment, but the number would be much smaller than it is; the other races would probably never have come. In the case of

all the races the opportunity for steady employment offered by the factories was the principal cause for their coming. The factories have desired immigrant labor and have gone in search of it. One establishment, as already stated, for a time sought Italians and went to New York for newly arrived immigrants. Another made a similar attempt to obtain Swedes (through an employment agency in New York); and it is not improbable that others have encouraged immigration to the community to a greater extent than can be traced. Most of the immigrants have entered the lower, more unskilled occupations where the lowest wages were paid. This is especially true of all the races except the German, English, and Scotch, who have usually found more remunerative employment. The early Germans were machinists, lock makers, etc.;, some of the English were cutlers and mechanics, and many of the Scotch were machinists. The Irish and the Swede were desirable on account of their strength; they could perform the heavy unskilled labor. The Pole and the Italian were, usually, untrained, and consequently adapted for little else than the lowest forms of employment; thus they replaced, in large measure, the Irish and Swedes in these occupations, and many of the latter races advanced in the scale of occupations as they became familiar with the work. To-day the Poles and the Italians are probably the most numerous of all the races in the lower occupations in the factories.

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

The opportunities for regular work in the community, as well as the relative industriousness of the members of the several races employed, are set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home:

TABLE 184.-Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 1,305 males 16 years of age or over who reported 22.8 per cent worked twelve months, 71 per cent worked nine months or over, 95.1 per cent worked six months or over, and 98.6 per cent worked three months or over. The males who are native-born of foreign father show the highest percentage, followed by the foreign-born males and the native whites born of native father, who worked twelve months during the past year. The males who are native whites born of native father show the highest percentage, followed by males who are native-born of foreign father and the foreign-born males, in the order mentioned, who worked nine months or over. Males who are native-born of foreign father show the highest percentage who worked six months or over during the past year, followed, in the order named, by the native-born whites of native father and the foreign-born. Employees who are native whites born of native father show that 100 per cent worked three months or over, while the foreign-born males and those who are native-born of foreign father show somewhat over 98 per cent who worked during a similar period during the past year.

Of the males who are native-born of foreign father those whose fathers were Swedes show a considerably higher percentage who

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