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worked during each specified period of time than do the males whose fathers were born in Germany.

Of the males of foreign birth the Poles report the highest percentage and the Ruthenians the lowest percentage who worked the full year. The Swedes show the highest and the Russians the lowest percentage who worked nine months or over; the Swedes show the highest percentage and the Russians the lowest percentage who worked six months or over. The South Italians, the Slovaks, and the Swedes each show 100 per cent, as compared with only 93.8 per cent of the Russians, who worked three months or over during the past year.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home:

TABLE 185.-Months worked during the past year by jemales 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The preceding table shows that of 243 females 16 years of age or over who reported, 34.6 per cent worked twelve months, 80.2 per cent worked nine months or over, 92.6 per cent worked six months or over, and 97.5 per cent worked three months or over. The females who are native-born of foreign father show the highest percentage who worked during each specified period; the females who are of foreign birth follow.

Of the foreign-born female employees the Poles show 64.9 per cent as compared with no Ruthenians who worked during the full year. The Polish female employees show a higher percentage who worked nine months or over, six months or over, and three months or over than do the Ruthenians.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

In the Labor Bulletin of March, 1908, issued by the state bureau of labor statistics, is found a list of 18 labor unions in Community C, a number sufficient to justify the assumption that the unions are factors of considerable importance in the community. Yet the trade

unions have little hold there; those listed are chiefly concerned with men who work outside of the factories, and it is within the factories that the majority of the city's working population is found. The factories do not welcome the labor union; all of the more important industrial plants are "open shops," in which unions exert little influence. The attitude of the races employed in the factories appears to be largely one of indifference toward the labor unions. The wage-earner appears to get along without union help and manifests little interest in the unions. Immigrants do belong to unions-it is said that the number was larger some years ago—and probably most of the unions in the city would welcome immigrant members. But the field is not promising for union proselyting and the unions continue to be relatively unimportant in the factories. The smallness of the extent to which the wage-earners are members of labor organizations is exhibited by the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, affiliation with trade unions of males in the households studied who were 21 years of age or over and who were working for wages.

TABLE 186.-Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over working for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of 1,115 males 21 years of age or over shown in the above table, 2.9 per cent are affiliated with trade unions. The male employees who are native-born of foreign father show 5.9 per cent, the foreignborn show 2.8 per cent, and the employees who are native-born whites of native father show only 1.3 per cent who are affiliated with trade unions. Of the employees who are native-born of foreign father, those of German parentage show 12 per cent who are affiliated with trade unions. The employees whose fathers were born in other

specified countries are not computed owing to the small number involved. Of the foreign-born employees, the Swedes show 11.7 per cent, the South Italians 4 per cent, the Germans 3.2 per cent, and the Lithuanians 1.9 per cent, who are affiliated with trade unions. The Slovaks and Poles show less than 1 per cent, while none of the Russian and Ruthenian employees are affiliated with trade unions.

SHIFTING TENDENCIES OF THE LABOR SUPPLY.

One of the objectionable features of the present labor market is its shifting character; the tendency to change from one factory to another is much in evidence, and some of the large factories have had difficulty in obtaining satisfactory labor which would become competent and remain at work. This is illustrated by the following statement, showing the changes in the operating force of one representative factory during a single month of the year 1908:

Changes of employees in a factory in Community C during a single month of 1908. [This factory normally employs about 1,000 persons.]

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There is almost no local prejudice against the immigrant who has become so familiar an element in the life of the community that he is accepted as permanent. In the factories there is no apparent discrimination against him, although in social life he is usually restricted to his own or kindred races.

CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments occupied-Size of households Congestion-Housing and segregation [Text Tables 187 to 198 and General Tables 145 to 156].

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The monthly rent payments of the households the heads of which are employed in Community C are chiefly significant in their bearing upon the standard of living, because of congestion within the households arising from the practice of crowding the apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent outlay. The first table presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average rent per month paid per apartment, per room, and per person.

TABLE 187.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The preceding table shows that for 530 households the average monthly rent per apartment is $9.87, the average rent per month per room is $2.41, and the average rent per month per person is $1.81. The households whose heads are native whites born of native father report the highest average rent per month per apartment, per room and per person; households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father report the next highest rent in each instance; and the households the heads of which are of foreign birth the lowest monthly rent per apartment, per room, and per person. The house

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