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As based on the total number of households, those households whose heads are foreign-born show an average number of boarders and lodgers of 1.20 as compared with 0.07 in the households the heads of which are native whites born of native father and 0.03 boarders or lodgers in the households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father. The households whose heads are of foreign birth report an average of 2.77 boarders or lodgers per household as based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers. In this group the households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father and those whose heads are of foreign birth are not computed owing to the small number involved.

The households whose heads are Russians report an average of considerably over 3 boarders or lodgers per household. The households the heads of which are Ruthenians and Lithuanians show an average of considerably over 2 boarders or lodgers as compared with 0.02 boarders or lodgers per household in households the heads of which are Swedes as based on the total number of households. As based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, the households the heads of which are Russians, Ruthenians, South Italians, and Poles show an average number of boarders or lodgers of over 3 persons per household as contrasted with 1.66 boarders or lodgers in households the heads of which are Slovaks.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED.

The range in size of apartments occupied by the households is indicated in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms.

The following table shows the percentage of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 193.-Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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From the preceding table it will be noted that in the 686 households studied in this locality the average number of rooms per apartment is 4.29. In those households the heads of which were foreignborn the average is 4.16, as compared with 4.97 and 5.12 for those households the heads of which were native-born of foreign father and native-born of native father, white, respectively. Among those households the heads of which were foreign-born, the averages range from 5.21 for the German to 3.38 for the Slovak households.

Considering the size of apartments in greater detail, it will be seen that of the households studied 20.6 per cent occupy apartments of 3 rooms, 42.9 per cent apartments of 4, 23.2 per cent apartments of 5, and 9.2 per cent apartments of 6 rooms, while the combined proportions occupying apartments of 1, 2, and 7 or more rooms amounts to but a fraction over 4 per cent. Those households the heads of which were foreign-born show proportions occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms that vary only slightly from the proportions shown in the total for all households. Only very small differences are noted in the proportions of those households the heads of which were native-born of foreign father and native-born of native father white occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms. With the exception of 1.5 per cent of the latter occupying apartments of 3 rooms, neither shows a proportion occupying apartments of less than 4 rooms. The proportions of each occupying apartments of 4 rooms are somewhat below, while the proportions of each occupying apartments of 5, 6, and 7 or more rooms are considerably above the proportions shown for all households studied.

Among those households the heads of which were foreign-born it will be noted that the Ruthenian households alone show a proportion occupying apartments of 1 room; that no German, Lithuanian, Ruthenian, or Swedish, and only very small proportions of the South Italian, Polish, and Slovak households occupy apartments of 2 rooms; and that no Polish, Ruthenian, or Slovak, and less than 2 per cent of either the Lithuanian or Swedish, as compared with 3.8 per cent of the South Italian and 9.9 per cent of the German households, occupy apartments of 7 or more rooms. Of those occupying apartments of 3 rooms, the South Italian, Swedish, and German households show 13.9, 3.6, and 2.8 per cent, respectively, as compared with proportions of the other households ranging from 54.9 per cent of the Slovak to 26.3 per cent of the Lithuanian households. A slightly larger proportion of the Polish than Lithuanian or Ruthenian, a considerably larger proportion of Polish than South Italian, and a much larger proportion of Polish than Slovak or Swedish households, occupy apartments of 4 rooms, the proportion of German households occupying apartments of this size amounting to 19.7 per cent, a proportion considerably below that of the Swedish households. Both the Swedish and German households occupying apartments of 5 rooms show much larger proportions than the South Italian, which in turn show a considerably larger proportion than the Ruthenian or Lithuanian households, the Slovak and Polish households showing the smallest proportions occupying 5 room apartments, or 2.2 and 1.2 per cent, respectively. No Polish or Slovak, and only small proportions of the Lithuanian and Ruthenian, as compared with 7.6 per cent of the South Italian, 14.4 per cent of the Swedish, and 22.5

per cent of the German households occupy apartments of 6 rooms. Thus it will be seen that those households the heads of which were of the old immigrant races occupy considerably larger apartments than those the heads of which were of the more recent immigrant races.

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households of each specified number of

persons.

TABLE 194.—Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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In the above table there is an average of 5.38 persons to each 1 of the 686 households. The average number of persons per foreignborn household is slightly higher, but in the case of the native whites of native father it drops to 3.35 persons per household, and in the case of the native-born of foreign father still remains less than 4 persons to a household.

No household, whether native or foreign, consists of but 1 person, and no households of more than 6 persons are found among the nativeborn of foreign father. But 4.4 per cent of the native whites of native father live in households of 7 persons, and none of them have households of 8 or more persons. On the other hand, 70.1 per cent of the Ruthenian and 62.7 per cent of the Polish households, and from 15.3 to 48.1 per cent of the Swedish, German, Lithuanian, Slovák, and South Italian households are composed of 7 or more persons.

Over 50 per cent of the native-born households, whether of native or foreign father, are composed of less than 4 persons, and the greater proportion of the German, Lithuanian, Slovak, and Swedish households are composed of less than 6 persons, the South Italian, Polish, and Ruthenian households living as already described.

CONGESTION.

Preceding tables indicate the extent to which crowding prevails in the households of the community. The degree of congestion and its effects upon living arrangements is more directly set forth in the following series of tables.

The following table shows the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 195.-Average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Of 686 households shown in the above table the average number of persons per apartment is 5.38, the average number of persons per room is 1.25, and the average number of persons per sleeping room is 2.26. The households, the heads of which are of foreign birth, show a considerably higher average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room than do the households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, or those whose heads are native whites born of native father, which follow in the order named. Of the households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, those whose heads are of English and Irish parentage show the highest average number of persons per apartment; those whose heads are of Irish parentage the highest average number of persons per room, and those whose heads are of English parentage the highest average number of persons per sleeping room. Of the households the heads of which are foreign-born, those whose heads are Russians show the highest average number of persons, and those whose heads are Germans the lowest average number of persons per apartment. The households whose heads are Poles show the highest average, and those whose heads are Germans the lowest average number of persons per room.

The households the heads of which are Poles show the

highest and those whose heads are Germans the lowest average number per sleeping rooms.

In the table next presented, persons per room are shown by general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 196.-Persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The preceding table shows that of 686 households, 69.5 per cent have 1 or more persons per room, 21.1 per cent have 2 or more persons per room, and 1.2 per cent have 3 or more persons per room. The average number of persons per room for all households studied is 1.25 persons. The households, the heads of which are foreign-born, show 78.1 per cent having 1 or more persons per room, as contrasted with 23.3 per cent of households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, and 16.2 per cent of households the heads of which are native whites born of native father having 1 or more persons per room. The households whose heads are foreign-born show 24.7 per cent having 2 or more and 1.4 per cent having 3 or more persons per room, as contrasted with no households the heads of which are nativeborn of foreign father, or native whites born of native father having the same number of persons per room. The households the heads of which are foreign-born, show a considerably higher average number of persons per room than do the households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father and those whose heads are native whites born of native father, which follow in the order named.

The households whose heads are Ruthenians show the highest, and those whose heads are Swedes the lowest, percentage, having 1 or more persons per room. The households the heads of which are Poles, show the highest, and those whose heads are Germans the lowest,

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