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and continued at an increasing rate during the two following decades, reaching its highest numbers in the period from 1870-1880, and from that time falling off until by 1889 there was scarcely any Irish immigration. Up to the present time this condition has remained unchanged, and the Irish population, which now numbers 4,200, shows a tendency to decrease more rapidly than that of any other race. The Irish were the first unskilled immigrant laborers to come to the community in numbers. They were the people who laid down the railroads, built the canal, and furnished unskilled labor on the farms and wherever else it was needed. A large number of them found employment in the textile industries and later went into business as grocers, saloon keepers, or butchers and into other occupations. Their places as laborers have been taken by the Italians, and to-day the section of the city formerly inhabited by the Irish and Scotch is now occupied by the races of southern and eastern Europe. The Polish immigration to the community was followed by that of another race of central and eastern Europethe Slovaks. During the period from 1885 to 1889, Slovaks began to come to the city in small numbers, and in the decade from 1889 to 1899 the stream was constant and increasing until in the year last mentioned they numbered about 2,000. Since that time the immigration of Slovaks, while not as heavy as that of the Poles, has not been far behind, having averaged about one hundred a year. It was especially heavy in 1906, but in the following years of the panic, 1907-8, it became a negligible factor. The present population is estimated to be 4,000. The work performed by Slovaks in this community is that of unskilled and unorganized laborers. Like the Poles, the Slovak men and women find employment in the textile establishments, the handkerchief and rubber mills, and in other industries where work of an unskilled nature is required. The Hebrew immigration resembles that of the other races from eastern and central Europe, and extends over the same period of time 18891909. With persons of this race the motive for coming to the United States have been religious and social, rather than economic. The Russian Jews form three-fourths of the total Jewish population, although Polish, Austrian, and German Jews are present in considerable numbers.

These people are the shopkeepers and property owners of the immigrant district. Many of them have come equipped with trades, which they have been unable to practice abroad. Among their number are carpenters, masons, bricklayers, machinists, and other mechanics. Fewer of the Hebrews than of the members of other races go into the mills of the community. Their desire seems to be to enter trade, and from small beginnings many of these people have built up well established businesses. This immigration has been an almost constant factor in the history of the city. Since 1889 it has been, after the Polish and Slovak immigration, the largest single element in the immigration to this community, and one which seems to increase rather than to diminish. The present Hebrew population numbers about 3,500. The Ruthenians, or, as they call themselves, "Little Russians," immigrated to community D during years of the Polish and Slovak immigration. They come largely from one province of Austria-Hungary, Galicia, and, like the Jews, they have formed a constant factor of immigration. Before 1889 the Ruthen

ian immigration was very small, but since that time has been large in every year except that following the panic of 1907-8, when it ceased temporarily. The present Ruthenian population is 3,200. These immigrants, like those of the other races of central Europe now coming to this country, are unskilled workers, and find a place in the manufacturing establishments of the community, where a large amount of unskilled labor is necessary. Like the Poles and Slovaks, the men and women of Ruthenian race work in the textile establishments of the city. The Ruthenian women, together with the Polish, Slovak, and Magyar women, are largely employed in the handkerchief factories. The Magyars or Hungarians constitute another large element in the population of the city. These people were the first of the races of central Europe to settle in the city, one member of the race having come in 1879. Magyar immigration, on a large scale, began in 1889, and followed the same general course as the Polish, Slovak, and Ruthenian immigration, from which it is not easily differentiated. The Magyars, like the Poles, Slovaks, and Ruthenians, are also unskilled laborers and perform the same kind of work. Their women find employment in the handkerchief factories of the city, while the men perform unskilled tasks in the cotton, woolen and worsted, rubber, and dye works of the city. This immi gration has been constant, except during the panic years, and has been in no way different from other immigration from central Europe. Of the present population of about 3,000, approximately 2,000 are Roman Catholics. German immigration to the community began with the opening of a large woolen and worsted mill in 1889. The Germans who found employment in this mill came very largely from a single city in the State of Saxony. The capital and management of this mill, which caused this immigration, also came from Germany. In the five years, 1890-1895, the German immigration to the community was very heavy, for all who left Germany were assured of positions in the mill referred to. The immigrants came with trades, not as unskilled laborers, and took up their employment immediately upon arrival. In 1899, officials of the mill opened a second establishment, in which large numbers of Germans found employment.

Since 1900 German immigration has been light. In 1904 a third mill was established and this gave employment to large numbers of Germans already here. The two mills most recently opened, were, while independent of the earlier plant, established by men who had been connected with the original company. With the exception of the few German mechanics almost the entire German population may be found working in these three mills. At present the German population of the community is about 2,500. The earliest immigrants to the community were the Dutch. Farmers of this race were known to reside in this vicinity as early as 1678. These people emigrated from New York and Connecticut, on account of more liberal land laws in effect in New Jersey. The more recent immigration of the Dutch to Community D began as early as 1860, and during the decade from 1870 and 1880 many persons came to obtain employment in a textile mill in an adjoining village. The Dutch immigration, like the immigration of other races of northern and western Europe, had greatly diminished by 1889, and, since that time, has not in point of numbers been comparable with the immigration of the races of

central Europe. There has been a change also in the character of the immigration, for while the immigrants of the period before 1889 were entirely unskilled, nearly all of the few persons now coming have trades. These recent arrivals secure positions as artisans and are not forced to take employment in the mills. In the census of 1900 the Dutch population is given as 1,315, and in the nine years following a gain of about 700 has been made, making a total, at the present time, of about 2,000. The South Italians followed the Germans, Poles, Slavs, and other races to the city, but came in gradually. In 1893 there were few Italian families in the community, and the majority of these had come from a larger neighboring city, where they had formerly worked in the silk mills. Italian immigration was heavy during the years of 1899, 1900, and 1901, and has continued to increase since that time, except in the years 1907-8, when it was very light. The Italian immigrants in this community are a very uncertain quantity, as they exhibit a stronger tendency than do the immigrants of any other race to visit the mother country whenever they have sufficient money to make the journey. In the summer and fall they leave America and journey to Italy, returning the next spring. The members of the South Italian colony, unlike the aliens from central Europe, do not live in the immigrant settlement described, but make their homes in a different part of the city. The Italians in Community D secure employment in the textile mills as laborers for contractors, and a number of them, on account of their proficiency in penmanship, have secured clerkships. Some are engaged in the fruit business and as street venders. Italian women are employed in the mills to a less extent than the women_of_any other race. In 1900 the population of both North and South Italians was 783. Since that time Italian immigration has kept pace with that of all other races, and the state census of 1905 shows a total North and South Italian population of 1,723, an increase of about 120 per cent in the five-year period.

The South Italian population was estimated, in 1909, at 1,800. While there were, in 1909, fewer Italians than English in the community, the North Italian immigration may be most conveniently discussed at this point. Like the South Italians, the North Italians occupy a separate quarter of the city. Their labor is of a distinctively higher type than that of the South Italians. The North Italian immigration to the community had its inception in 1888, when a few individuals came to live in the city. Most of the immigration which followed was not direct, although some of the North Italians came directly from the old country to friends already here. To a greater extent than the South Italians members of this race came to the community on account of the industries located there. Large numbers first secured work in the silk mills of a neighboring city, and then found employment in the textile establishments in towns lying close to the community studied. From the statements made by priests, postmasters, and steamship agents it appears that the North Italian immigration has been large since about 1900. A conservative estimate places the North Italian population of the community in 1909 at 700.

The North Italians in the community are occupied in the industrial establishments, and to a less extent, in small trading and shopkeeping. In the cotton, woolen, and worsted mills, they are as

well represented, in proportion to population, as persons of any other race, and among their number also is found a large percentage of skilled workmen. They form a law-abiding, industrious, and successful part of the foreign population, and stand high among the races of recent immigration to the city. The English, like the Irish and Scotch, were among the first immigrants to come to the community, but they have supplied only a very small proportion of the immigration which has come in since 1889. When the worsted, woolen, and cotton mills were being started on a small scale, during the period from 1869 to 1889, the labor of the English weavers, dyers, and finishers was in great demand, and many were induced to come directly from Europe to take up their occupations in the community. At no time has English immigration been heavy, and at no time have the English_constituted a very strong element in the population numerically. In 1900 there were according to the census returns 600 English in the city. It seems probable that this figure represents an underestimate. The English population in 1909 was estimated at 1,150. In almost all instances the English immigrants have been textile workers, and have come to the community largely for the reason that they could secure employment in an occupation for which they were fitted. Among the immigrants of this race unskilled laborers have been very rare. The English have been fairly successful in their occupations, and have contributed materially to the development of the industries of the city. Like the Germans and Scotch, the English have prospered greatly in the new environment.

The Scotch constituted an important element in the early immigration to the city. Like the English, they came to the community at the time of the opening of the textile mills, and were among the pioneers in the introduction and development of the textile industries. In the later immigration the Scotch played little part, and by 1889 the Scotch immigration had practically ceased. The Scotch immigrants entered the same industries as did the English and Irish immigrants who came to the city during the period from 1869–1889. They were for the most part skilled workers who had done similar work in Scotland. That they have been successful is evidenced by the fact that many of the same woolen, worsted, cotton, and dyeing mills in which they went to work as weavers, spinners, and dyers are now owned by themselves or their descendants. The Scotch immigration reached its highest point in 1880. In 1909 the total Scotch population was estimated at 600.

Among the more recent immigrants to the community are the Swedes. Swedish immigration began in 1895, when a Swedish coachman came to Community D. Since that date immigration has continued upon a moderate scale. A considerable number of Swedish women have been induced, through the aid of a resident Swedish family, to come to the city as domestic servants. Of the men of this race who have come to the community, some have entered domestic employments and others have secured positions as masons, or tinsmiths, or in other building trades. The Swedish population was 183 in 1900, and had increased to 300 in 1909. The above is a discussion of the immigration of the principal races making up the foreign-born population of Community D. In 1909 there were in the community 4,200 foreign-born persons of races not

dealt with in the text. The races which compose this group are so many, and so varied, and their numerical representation is, in most instances, so small; that no definite account can be given of their immigration. In 1909 Community D had, according to a conservative estimate, about 45,000 inhabitants, of whom over 35,000, or about 78 per cent, were of foreign birth. A large majority of all the inhabitants had immigrated from Europe within the preceding twenty years. At the present time the influx of immigrants continues undiminished. It is stated that in January, 1909, the arrivals averaged 14 a day, and that the total was 500 for the month of February and 300 for the month of March. The diverse industries, constantly growing, have called for an increasing amount of unskilled labor, and the demand has been met through immigration.


An additional insight into the character of recent and past immigration to the community may be had from the following table, which shows, by race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 219.—Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.


[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the total number of persons 42.6 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 70.5 per cent under ten, and 90 per cent under twenty years. The South Italians, Magyars, and Poles are the most recent arrivals, the greater proportion of each having been in this country less than five years. The Irish have the longest residence, only 1.4 per cent having been here under five years, 2.7 per cent under ten years, and 16.2 per cent under twenty years. In addition to the Irish the Dutch is the only other race which shows the smaller proportion to have been in the United States under twenty years.

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