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ESTIMATED POPULATION OF COMMUNITY D, IN 1909, BY RACE.

In the following table the population of Community D, in May, 1909, is classified according to general nativity and race:

Estimated population of Community D, May, 1909.

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The figures of the above table are the result of a careful estimate made in May, 1909. The Thirteenth Federal Census placed the population of the city at 34,773, an increase of 97.2 per cent as compared with the year 1890. It seems remarkable that the population should increase 20 per cent within the past year, but as the estimates in 1909 were made with great care they have retained. The Federal census perhaps applied to a wider range of territory. It appears that of the total population of 45,850 persons in 1909 35,650, or 78 per cent, were of foreign birth. Among the foreign-born, of the races for which the figures are given, the Poles, Irish, Slovaks, Hebrews, Ruthenians, and Magyars, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Swedes, Scotch, and North Italians the smallest representation. The figure given for the Poles is 4,500 and that given for the Swedes is 300. It will be noted that 4,200 persons were of races not specified in the table. In this group were included persons born in the following countries:

Foreign-born persons of unspecified race, by country of birth.

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West Indies (other than
Cuba).

Other countries.
At sea.

Data showing the proportion of persons born in each of the above countries are not available. It will be noted that a very considerable proportion of the foreign-born persons in the community were of the races of recent immigration.

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CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income-Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers— Sources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income [Text Tables 220 to 237 and General Tables 171 to 180].

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

Before entering into a discussion of the economic status in this country of employees and members of their households in Community D, the industrial condition and principal occupations of immigrant workers and members of their households while abroad are considered. The table first presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at the time of arrival in this country.

TABLE 220.—Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The above table shows that 64.6 per cent of the males reporting worked for wages in Europe before coming to the United States, 20.8 per cent worked without wages, 9.9 per cent worked for profit, while only 4.6 per cent were without occupation. Irish when com

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pared with the other races given show very high proportions who were without occupations, while North Italians, Poles, and Slovaks show no males without occupation before coming to this country. Germans and English show over 80 per cent who were working for wages and Hebrews and Slovaks over 70 per cent, the other races follow with smaller proportions, the Irish showing the smallest per cent working for wages. Poles show a very much higher percentage working without wages than the other races, while English show no individuals who worked without wages before coming to the United States. South Italians, Irish, and North Italians show a comparatively high per cent working for profit and Polish the smallest proportion thus engaged.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States, of foreign-born males in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival. TABLE 221.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.}

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English.
German..

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13.9 2.8 0.0 0.0 47.225.0 5. 680.6 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.6 5.6

86 3.5 4.7.0 1.240. 711.627.986.0 2.3 2.3 4.7 1.2 2.3 2.3 5.8
66 6.1 .0 .0 1.515.2 40.919.777.3 .0 3.0 3.0 1.5 7.6 4. 513.6
22 40.9 4.5 .0 4.5 9.1 .0 .0 18.218.2 4.5 22.7 13.6 .0 4.518.2
28 .014.3 .0 3.614. 328.6 7.167.9 10.7 3.614. 3 10.7 .0 7.117.9
.926.4 .0 3.6 .015. 510.055. 513.6 7.3 20.9 6.4 5.5 10.9 22.7
2.4 30.1 .8 4.1 3.3 17.1 9.865. 026.8 .0 26.8 5.7
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.0 14.3 .이 .0 .014.3 4.833. 361.9 .061.9 4.8 .0
5. 144.6 .0 1.9 1.9 1.3 5.154. 834. 4 .034.4 5.7 .0
.0 1.9 9.4 18. 915. 171.718.9 1.920.8 7.5 .0

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Magyar.

123

Polish

21

Ruthenian.

157

Slovak..

53

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4. 623.5 .1 2.811.215. 7 11. 364. 6 18.7 2.120.8 5.0 1.8 3.1 9.9

The above table shows that of the males who were working for wages before coming to the United States the greatest proportion were farm laborers. Those who were engaged in hand trades follow with the next highest percentage. Factory operators and those engaged in other occupations show almost the same percentage, while very small proportions were general laborers and miners. Of those working without wages the greatest proportion were farm laborers, while of those working for profit the highest percentage were farmers or were engaged in other occupations. Ruthenians show a much higher percentage who were farmers or farm laborers than any of the other races, Hebrews showing only 1.5 per cent who were engaged in this occupation before coming to the United States. English and Germans show the highest percentage who were factory operatives, while no South Italians or

Poles were so engaged. Hebrews show the highest percentage in hand trades, while very few Ruthenians and no Irish were in this occupation. Irish show 40.9 per cent of males who had no occupation before coming to the United States, while all of the North Italians, Poles, and Slovaks were engaged in some form of labor.

In the following table the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming is shown, by race of individual.

TABLE 222.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The preceding table shows that 45.5 per cent of the females reporting complete data were without occupation before coming to the United States, 31.2 per cent worked for wages, 21.2 per cent worked without wages, while only 2.1 per cent worked for profit. South Italians and Hebrews show over 80 per cent of females who were without occupation abroad, and Irish, English, and Germans show over 70 per cent. The other races show comparatively small proportions, Poles showing only 5.6 per cent of females who were without occupation before coming to this country. Ruthenians and Slovaks show the highest percentage of females working for wages, and South Italians very small proportions. Poles show large proportions working without wages when compared with other races given, while English and Hebrews show no women working without wages before coming to the United States. South and North Italians show the highest per cent working for profit, while no English, Hebrews, or Poles were working for profit.

The table following shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival in this country.

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