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TABLE 223.-Occupation before coming to the United States, of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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English..

German.

Hebrew.

1.5 1.5

32 75.0 0.0 6.3 15.6 0.0 3.1 25.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
66 72.7 3.0 7.6 9.1 1.5 1.5 22.7 1.5 1.5 3.0
55 81.8 .0
3.6 .0 14.5 .0 18.2 .0 .0 .0
29 75.9 6.9 6.9 .0 .0 .0 13.8 3.4 3.4 6.9
29 44.8 17.2

.0 .0 .0 .0 3.4 .0 3.4 3.4 3.4 6.9 1.2 2.5 1.2 6.2 7.4 .0 30.3 .8 .0 ..8 .0 55.6 .0 .0 .0 .0 32.5 1.5 .0 26.3

Irish.

Italian, North..

.0

3.4

.0

.0 20.7 24. 1

3.4 27.6

Italian, South.

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Polish..

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36 5.6 27.8 11.1
14.5 44.0 7.5
24.6 28. 1 14. 0

.0 .0

.0 24.2 30.3
.0 38.9 55.6

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.0 1.5

1.8 .0 1.8 .6 21.2 1.1 1.0 2.1

Of the total number of persons in the above table, 31.2 per cent were working for wages abroad before coming to this country; 21.2 per cent were working without wages, while 2.1 per cent were working for profit. Most of those who were working for wages were employed as farm laborers. Those who were in domestic and personal service show the next largest proportion, and less than 2 per cent each were employed as factory operators, in hand trades, and in other occupations. Of those who were working without wages practically all were farm laborers, while of those who were working for profit the proportion who were farmers is almost the same as the proportion who were in other occupations. Over 50 per cent of the Ruthenians were working for wages and the Slovaks show a proportion almost as large. The South Italians show the smallest proportion who were working for wages. None of the English or Hebrews were working without wages. Over 55 per cent of the Poles were working without wages as compared with less than 5 per cent each of the Germans and South Italians. The South Italians show the largest proportion who were working for profit, yet for that race the proportion is only 7.4 per cent. None of the English, Hebrews, or Poles were working for profit.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupation of males 16 years of age or over in the households studied.

TABLE 224.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 1,029 males included in the foregoing table 32.5 per cent are employed in the manufacture of woolen and worsted goods, 13.2 per cent are employed in the manufacture of cotton goods, and 50.3 per cent are otherwise employed; 3.4 per cent are at home and less than per cent at school. Practically the same proportion of each nativity group are employed in the manufacture of cotton goods, while the foreign-born show a larger proportion than the native-born of foreign father who are employed in the manufacture of woolen and worsted goods and a smaller proportion who are otherwise employed. None of the foreign-born are at school, and 3.5 per cent are at home, as compared with 4.8 per cent of the native-born of foreign father who are at school and 2.9 per cent who are at home. Of the several foreign races the English, Irish, Ruthenian, and Slovak are the only ones showing as high as 10 per cent who are employed in the manufacture of cotton goods. Over 80 per cent of the Germans and over 60 per cent of the North Italians and Magyars who are employed in the manufacture of woolen and worsted goods and practically the same proportion of the Slovaks and a smaller proportion of the Ruthenians are employed in the manufacture of woolen and worsted goods. The Hebrews show the largest and the Germans the smallest proportion who are otherwise employed. The proportion who are at home ranges from 6.9 per cent of the Slovaks to 0.8 per cent of the South Italian.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF WOMEN AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

Two tables exhibiting the present industrial status of members of the immigrant households studied are next presented. The first table, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupation of females 16 years of age or over in the households studied.

TABLE 225.-General occupation of females 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The preceding table shows that the greatest proportion of females are at home, the next highest proportion are engaged in the manufacture of woolen and worsted goods, while a considerably smaller proportion are otherwise employed. Between 1 and 2 per cent are employed in the manufacture of cotton goods, 1 per cent are at school and 0.9 per cent are in domestic service. Foreign-born show a higher percentage of females at home than either native-born of foreign father or native-born of native father which follow in the order mentioned. Foreign-born show 30.9 per cent engaged in the manufacture of woolen and worsted goods as contrasted with 11.5 per cent of native-born of foreign father and 4.3 per cent of native-born of native father who are employed in this industry. Foreign-born show a small proportion in domestic service while native-born of foreign father and native-born of native father show no females thus employed. In the manufacture of cotton goods native-born whites of native father show the highest percentage employed followed by foreign-born and native-born of foreign father in much smaller proportions.

Native-born of native father also show the highest percentage of females who are otherwise employed, closely followed by native-born of foreign father, foreign-born showing only a comparatively small percentage. Persons native-born of native father show the highest percentage at school, closely followed by native-born of foreign father, while foreign-born only show 0.2 per cent thus occupied. Of the foreign-born races English and Hebrews alone show small proportions in school, while Irish and Germans show over 80 per cent at home. South Italians show a considerably higher per cent than the other races of females otherwise employed, while Poles, Ruthenians,

Magyars, and North Italians, in the order mentioned, show large proportions employed in the woolen and worsted goods industry. English show considerably larger proportions employed in the manufacture of cotton goods than the other races and Germans the highest percentage in domestic service. Only one race, the Irish, shows no females in the woolen and worsted industry, and no Hebrews, North Italians, Magyars, or Poles are employed in manufacturing cotton goods. No Irish, North Italians, Poles, or Slovaks are in domestic

service.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The extent to which the male heads of families studied were regularly employed, together with their average annual earnings, are set forth in the following table. This table shows, by general nativity and race, the proportion of husbands in the households studied who are at work.

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The preceding table shows that 97.3 per cent of the 559 husbands studied are working, averaging $565 apiece yearly. It will be noted that all the native-born of foreign father, English, Hebrews, and Slovaks, and over 91 per cent of each other race report the husbands at work. The highest average earnings, $1,143, are reported by the native-born of German father and the lowest, $309, by the Poles. will also be noted that the highest average earnings, ranging from $664, reported by the foreign-born Irish, to the $1,143 of the native-born of German father, are reported by the past immigrant and nativeborn races, the earnings of the recent immigrant races ranging from the $309 reported by the Poles to the $625 averaged by the Hebrews. The range in the earnings per year of male heads of families is shown in the following table, by general nativity and race:

TABLE 226.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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TABLE 227.—Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of

individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6.]

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In the above table 65.1 per cent get under $600, 84.4 per cent under $800, and small proportions less than $200 or $1,000 or over. These figures are approximately the same as the proportions of the foreignborn, but of the native-born of foreign father 54.5 per cent get less than $800, none less than $200 and 36.4 per cent $1,000 or over. Very great variation is noted in the average earnings of the various races, the Polish and South Italians reporting less than $325, Ruthenians and Slovaks less than $470, the Magyars and North Italians less than $600, and each of the remaining races $625 or over. The maximum average of $1,143 is reported by the native-born of German father and the next highest average being reported by the English, native-born of Irish father, German, and Irish in order.

Of the races of past immigration of the Hebrews and of the nativeborn of foreign father, the majority get $600 or over, as contrasted with 57.7 per cent to 94 per cent of the other races getting less than $600. None of the North Italians, South Italians, or Slovaks get $1,000 or over and less than 9 per cent of any of the other races of recent immigration, as compared with from 13.6 per cent to 30 per cent of the other races.

This table shows that all the high-paid labor is controlled by the native-born and by the races of past immigration; the South Italians, Magyars, Ruthenians, and Slovaks providing the cheapest class of laborers.

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