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ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of males 18 years of age or over, in the households studied.

TABLE 228.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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The above table shows the greatest proportion of males earning under $600 per year, a very small percentage earn under $200 and over $1,000, while 30 per cent earn under $400 per year. Native-born of foreign father show a higher earning capacity than foreign-born, a much higher percentage earning over $1,000 per year than foreignborn. The average yearly earnings for all males shown in the table is $535, native-born of foreign father showing an average of $723 per year as contrasted with $516, which is the average yearly earnings of foreign-born. Germans who are native-born of foreign father show by far the highest average yearly earnings of any of the races. the foreign-born English show the highest average yearly earnings, which is $836, and Poles the lowest, which is $294. The percentages show that no North Italians, South Italians, and Slovaks earn over

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$1,000 a year and very few Ruthenians and Magyars earn above this amount. No English, Germans, Irish, or North Italians earn under $200 per year, while the proportion of English and Germans earning under $400 is very small

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of females 18 years of age or over, in the households studied.

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TABLE 229.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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TABLE 230.—Per cent of females 18 years of age or over, earning each specified amount (approximate) per year, by general nativity.

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The preceding table shows that 15 per cent of females reporting earn under $200 per year, 47.9 per cent earn under $300, 85.3 per cent earn under $400, and 92.3 per cent earn under $500 per year. Foreignborn show a considerably higher proportion earning under each specified amount than native-born of foreign father, the percentage of the foreign-born in each instance being slightly higher than the total percentages for all females shown in the tables. South Italians show a very high proportion earning under $200 per year when compared with the other races given in the table. This race also shows no females earning over $400 per year.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

In the series of tables next presented the yearly income of the families studied, together with the several sources of family income and their relative importance, are considered. The first table submitted in this connection shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount.

TABLE 231.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. One family is included which reports income as "none."]

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Of the 618 families studied, 64.7 per cent get under $750, 19.1 per cent $1,000 or over, a considerably lower proportion less than $300, and a still smaller proportion $1,500 or over. These figures reflect closely the proportions of the foreign-born, but of the native-born of foreign father 60 per cent get $1,000 or over and 31.4 per cent get $1,500 or over. None of the persons native-born of Irish father, foreign-born English, Irish, Germans, or North Italians have less than $300, the majority of each of the first three named races having $1,000 or over. The majority of the North Italians get $750 or over, but over 50 per cent of each other recent immigrant races get less than $750.

None of the Hebrews, South Italians, or Ruthenians and less than 7 per cent of the North Italians, Slovaks, or Magyars get $1,500 or over, as compared with from 15.6 per cent to 30 per cent of each of the other races, the native-born of Irish father reporting the highest proportion. The average incomes of the old immigrant races range from $985 to $1,302, the native-born of foreign father reporting $1,252, as compared with from $421 to $862 of the other races.

Summarizing, small proportions of the old immigrant races and native-born of foreign father and large proportions of other races report in the under $300, $500, and $750 groups, the reverse being true from this point on.

WIVES AT WORK.

The tendency on the part of wives to engage in occupations outside the home in order to supplement the earnings of their husbands is indicated by the following table. This table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the proportion of wives at work.

TABLE 232.— Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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In the above table 14.2 per cent of the 614 wives studied are employed at an average wage of $250 yearly. A slightly higher próportion of the foreign-born wives are working, the average earnings being exactly the same, but of the native-born of foreign father only 2.9 per cent of the wives are working. Much variation from these figures is noted in the case of the several races. Thus none of the Irish, less than 3 per cent of the Germans and Hebrews, 7.7 per cent of the English, and a slightly lower proportion of the native-born of Irish father report wives working, while the proportions of the more

recent immigrant races range from the 13.8 per cent reported by the North Italians to the 25.5 per cent of the Slovaks. The earnings, also, range from the $158 of the South Italians to the $275 of the Magyars.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

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It has been seen that only a small proportion of the wives in the families studied were regularly employed for wages outside the home. On the other hand, a considerable proportion of the wives supplements the earnings of the heads by keeping boarders or lodgers. extent to which this is done is indicated by the following table, which shows, by yearly earnings of husbands and by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 233.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[The families here represented are only those where both husband and wife are present.]

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a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6.

This column includes 15 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."
c This column includes 9 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."

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