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Of 1,819 employees shown in the above table, 53.8 per cent are native whites born of native father, 26.3 per cent are native-born of foreign father, 19.7 per cent are of foreign birth, and 0.1 per cent are negroes who are native-born of native father. The table further shows that among the employees who are native whites born of native father and those who are native-born of foreign father, information was secured from a higher percentage of females than of males. The foreign-born employees show a considerably higher percentage of males than of females, while no information was secured from any females who are native negroes born of native father. Of the employees who are native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in Ireland, Germany, and England show 8.6 per cent, 7.1 per cent, and 5.6 per cent, respectively, while no employees whose fathers were born in other specified countries exhibit over 2 per cent of the total number for whom information was secured.. In the majority of cases, information was secured in this group from a higher percentage of females than of males. Of the foreign-born employees, the Germans show 2.7 per cent, the English 3.5 per cent, and the South Italians and the Irish 2.9 per cent and 2.2 per cent, respectively, while no employees who are of other specified races show over 2 per cent of the total number for whom information was secured. In this group, in all except one instance, information was secured for a higher percentage of males than of females.

ZINC SMELTING AND REFINING.

The following table shows the number and per cent of male employees of each race, for whom information was secured, employed in zinc smelting and refining.

Table 24.—Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and race-Zinc smelting and refining.

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From the foregoing table it will be noted that of the 1,423 male employees of this industry concerning whom information was obtained the foreign-born constitute 61.1 per cent and the nativeborn of foreign father 34.4 per cent, while the native-born of native father, white, constitute the remaining proportion of less than 5 per cent.

Considering only those races the representatives of which constitute as much as 1 per cent of all employees it will be seen that among the foreign-born the Poles constitute 34.9 per cent, a proportion largely in excess of that constituted by the Germans, who show the next largest proportion, or 14 per cent. The proportions constituted by the other foreign-born races range from 4.1 per cent of the Slovenians to 1.1 per cent each of the Irish and Lithuanians.

Among the native-born of foreign father only those whose fathers were born in Germany, Ireland, Russia, and England constitute each as much as 1 per cent of all employees. Those whose fathers were born in Germany constitute a very much larger proportion than those whose fathers were born in the other specified countries combined, the proportions of those whose fathers were born in the other specified countries ranging from 3.9 to 1.2 per cent.

CHAPTER III.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees in the manufacture of carpets, cars, cutlery and tools, electrical supplies, electric railways, firearms, foundry and machine shops, knit goods and hosiery, locomotives, paper and wood pulp, paper products, rope twine and hemp, sewing machines, steam railways, typewriters, and zinc smelting and refining [Text Tables 25 to 45 and General Tables 29 to 56].

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES.

The series of tabulations submitted in the present chapter set forth the period of residence in the United States of employees in 16 specified industries. The length of residence in the United States of an employee of a certain industry and the period of his employment in the industry are not necessarily identical, but they approximate each other sufficiently to indicate the character of recent and past immigration to the industry.

The detailed exhibit according to industries is as follows:

CARPETS.

The table first submitted shows, by sex and race, the per cent of foreign-born employees engaged in carpet manufacturing who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 25.—Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race- -Carpets.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.}

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Of 1,093 persons employed in the carpet-manufacturing industry the preceding table shows that the largest proportion, or 42.4 per cent, have been in the United States under five years, 21 per cent having had a period of residence of from five to nine years; 18.8 per cent twenty years or over; 11.4 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years; and 6.5 per cent from ten to fourteen years. The English and Polish report over 50 per cent and over 80 per cent, respectively, of their number as having had a period of residence in the United States of less than ten years, while over 50 per cent of the French Canadians have had a period of residence of fifteen years or over; over 50 per cent of the Germans twenty years or over; and over 50 per cent of the Irish ten years or over. Comparing the total number of males and females, it is seen that the former show a larger proportion in the United States each specified number of years except under five. A larger proportion of the males than of the females of each race except the English have been in the United States twenty years or over, while a larger proportion of the females than the males of each race except the English and German have had a period of residence under five years. All of the German females have been in the United States ten years or over, while 16.5, per cent of the males have had a period of residence under ten years.

CARS-EAST.

The following table shows, by race, the per cent of foreign-born male employees engaged in car building and repairing in the East who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 26.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race-Cars-East.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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From the preceding table it will be noted that of the 4,979 foreignborn male employees of this industry, concerning whom information was obtained, 35.2 per cent have been in the United States less than five, 25.8 per cent from five to nine, 7.6 per cent from ten to fourteen, and 8.5 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, while the remaining proportion has been in this country twenty years or over. Among those with a residence of less than five years the proportions of the older immigrant races, including the Bohemian and Moravian, range from 37.5 per cent of the above-mentioned race to 4.3 per cent of the Canadian other than French, while the proportions of the more recent immigrant races range from 67.8 per cent of the Magyars to 29.3 per cent of the Lithuanians. The Bohemians and Moravians of the older immigrants again show the largest proportion, or 27.1 per cent, with a residence of from five to nine years, and the Scotch the lowest proportion, or 7.5 per cent, while of the more recent immigrants with this period of residence the proportions range from 40.1 per cent of the Croatians to 27.1 per cent of the Magyars. No Bohemians or Moravians have been in the United States from ten to fourteen, and only 6.3 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years. In this last period of residence this is the smallest proportion shown by any of the older immigrant races, the Scotch showing the smallest proportion in the preceding period of from ten to 14 years, or 1.3 per cent. In each of these periods the largest proportion of the older immigrants is shown by the Swedes, who report 9.1 per cent with a residence of from ten to fourteen, and 28.8 per cent with a residence of from fifteen to nineteen years. The largest and smallest proportions of the more recent immigrants in these periods of residence are shown by the Lithuanians and Magyars, respectively, the former showing 20.3 per cent in the first and 13.8 per cent in the second period, as compared with 1.3 and 1.9 per cent, respectively, of the latter. No Croatians or Greeks and only 0.9 per cent of the Ruthenians, the smallest proportion shown by any of the more recent immigrants, have been in the United States twenty years or over, while the largest proportion among the more recent immigrants is shown by the Poles-16.7 per cent. Of the older immigrants with this period of residence, the Irish, with 69.7 per cent, show the largest and the Bohemians and Moravians the smallest proportions, or 29.2 per cent. The proportion of the Irish with this period of residence, it will be noted, is slightly in excess of that of the Scotch or Germans and considerably in excess of that of the English or Canadians other than French, while the proportion of Swedes-37.9 per cent is but slightly in excess of that shown by the Bohemians and Moravians.

CARS-MIDDLE WEST.

The table following shows, by race, the per cent of foreign-born male employees engaged in car building and repairing in the Middle West who had been in the United States each specified number of

years.

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