Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-Occupations of the first and second generation compared-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studiedAnnual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income-Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives in keeping boarders or lodgers Sources of family incomeRelative importance of different sources of family income-[Text Tables 51 to 69 and General Tables 60 to 69].

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

Before entering upon a discussion of the economic status in this country of employees and members of their households in Community A, the industrial condition and principal occupations of immigrant workers and members of their households while abroad are considered. The first table presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country.

TABLE 51.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

[blocks in formation]

Of 587 males from whom information was secured the larger proportion were working for wages before coming to the United States, and 31.2 per cent were working without wages, while comparatively small percentages were working for profit or were without occupation. Of the different races more than 50 per cent of all, except the Irish and Polish, were working for wages, while a larger proportion of

the Irish than of any other race were without occupations. The Polish, closely followed by the Irish, show larger percentages working without wages. None of the English, Germans, or Hebrews were working for profit, and only a small proportion of the other races, except the French Canadians, were so engaged.

The table next submitted shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival.

TABLE 52.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

[blocks in formation]

From information secured from 587 foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States a larger proportion of those who were working for wages were employed; as farm laborers than in any other occupation, while somewhat less proportions were factory operatives and in hand trades, and less than 3 per cent were either general or mine laborers. On the other hand, the larger proportion of those working without wages and of those working for profit were farm laborers and farmers, respectively.

Of the different foreign-born races the larger proportion of the German and English were factory operatives, and a larger proportion of the Hebrews were in hand trades, while of the Irish and Poles, the largest proportions in any single occupation were working without wages on farms. The larger proportion of the Slovaks were on farms, either as laborers with pay or without pay. The larger proportion of the French Canadians were on farms, as laborers with and without pay, and farming for themselves.

In the following table the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival is shown, by race of individual.

TABLE 53.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][merged small][ocr errors][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Of 534 females who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States, 78.7 per cent were without occupation abroad, 20.2 per cent worked for wages, and less than 1 per cent were working either without wages or for profit. Over 50 per cent of each race reporting were without occupation, while the proportions who were working for wages range from none in the case of the Hebrews to 46.8 per cent of the English. The Hebrews show much higher proportions than the other races who were working without wages and who were working for profit.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the occupations before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival in this country.

TABLE 54.-Occupation before coming to the United States, of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed]

Of the 534 females 16 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, only 20.2 per cent were working for wages. A larger proportion of those working for wages were employed as domestic servants than in any other occupation, while a somewhat less proportion were factory operatives, and very much smaller proportions were farm laborers, in hand trades, and other occupations. Less than 1 per cent were working either without wages or for profit. Of the different races working for wages the Polish shows the largest proportion as farm laborers, and most of the races reporting show none as farm laborers for wages. The Slovaks show the largest proportion working as domestic servants, and the English the largest working in factories or at hand trades.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupation of males 16 years of age or over in the households studied:

TABLE 55.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

[blocks in formation]

Native-born of native father,
White.

Native-born of foreign father,
by race of father:

Canadian, French.
German.

Irish.

114 0.0 3.5 5.3 3.5 6.1 0.9 3.530.7 28.9 0.9 0.0 5.3 1.8 1.8 7.9

.0 9.5 4.8 14. 3 . Ο 023.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 3.8 17.0 20.8 18. 9 .0 1.9 1.9 .0 .0 .0 .8 8.0 26.6 12.9 1.6 .0 8.9 .0 2.4 6.5

[blocks in formation]

21 .0 .0 4.8 4.8 23.8
53 .0 3.811.3 9.4 11.3
124 .0 .8 10.5 10.5 10. 5
201 5 .5 9.0 14.9 16.4 5.0 14.9 13.9 7.5 2.0
86 .0 1.2 7.0 5.8 4.7 4.7 36. 0 25. 6 11.6 .0
66 .0 .0 10.6 6.1 6.127.3 15.2 9.118.2 1.5
25 .0 .0 4.0 12.0 .0 .0 .0 20.0 44.0 8.0
88 1.1 4.5 5.7 6.8 6.8 1. 111. 434. 1 6.8 8.0

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Grand total.

1,091

.4 1.4 7.1 7.716.2 4.0 11.6 22. 5 14.8 2.4

.4 4.3

.0 .9 4.3 1.9

.0 .0 .0

.4

.0

[blocks in formation]

Total foreign-born..

763 5 1.0 6.7 7.9 19.0 5.2 13. 1 20.8 12.7 3.0 .4 3.0 .9 5.4 .3

966

[blocks in formation]
« AnteriorContinuar »