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In the families for which information was secured in Community A, 27.5 per cent of the wives either have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. It is also noted that the proportion of wives keeping boarders or lodgers or who are employed decreases with the increased earnings of husbands. Among families whose heads are of different nativity groups, those whose heads are native-born of foreign father show the smallest proportion of wives employed or keeping boarders or lodgers, and those whose heads are foreign-born the largest. In the families the heads of which are foreign-born, no Hebrew wives keep boarders or lodgers or are employed, while the largest proportion of wives in Polish families are so situated.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The sources of family income are shown in detail by the table next presented. This table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 67.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 714 families selected for study the preceding table shows that 91.3 per cent have an income within the year from earnings of husband and 8.8 per cent have an income from earnings of wife, 30 per cent having an income from contributions of children, 20.4 per cent having an income from payments of boarders or lodgers, and 10.6 per cent having an income from other sources. The same proportion of families whose heads are native-born of native father as of those whose heads are native-born of foreign father have an income from earnings of husband, the proportion of those whose heads are foreign-born having an income from this source being slightly smaller. The proportion of families whose heads are foreignborn having an income from earnings of wife or contributions of children is larger than the proportion of the families whose heads are either native-born of native father or native-born of foreign father, only a slight difference being shown between the proportions of the two last mentioned nativity groups. The families the heads of which are foreign-born show the largest and those the heads of which are native-born of foreign father the smallest proportion having an income from payments of boarders or lodgers, while those the heads of which are native-born of native father show the largest and those the heads of which are foreign-born the smallest proportion having an income from other sources. Among the families whose heads are of each foreign race it is seen that less than 5 per cent of those of Hebrew origin have an income from sources other than earnings of husband or contributions of children. Over 85 per cent of the families in each race group, except the Irish, have an income from earnings of husband and over 20 per cent of those the heads of which are Polish or Slovak, as compared with less than 6 per cent of those the heads of which are of each other race, have an income from earnings of wife. The families whose heads are French Canadian show the largest, and those whose heads are Polish the smallest, proportion having an income from contributions of children. Over 50 per cent of the families whose heads are Polish or Slovak and over 25 per cent of those whose heads are Irish, as compared with less than 12 per cent of those the heads of which are of each other race, have an income from payments of boarders or lodgers. The families the heads of which are French Canadian, German, or Irish are the only ones showing as high as 10 per cent of their number with an income from other sources, the Germans showing the highest proportion, or 26.7 per cent.

In the table following, in which the sources of family income are again shown in detail, each source specified is exclusive of all other sources. In other words, the proportion of families appearing under each designated source have their entire income from that source.

TABLE 68.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of

family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 714 families in Community A for which information was secured 41.7 per cent have their incomes from husbands alone, 16.9 per cent from husbands and children, 13.7 per cent from husbands and boarders or lodgers, 5.5 per cent from husband and wife, less than 5 per cent each from the various other enumerated sources, and 14.7 per cent from sources or combinations of sources not before specified. Among families whose heads are of different nativity groups those native-born of foreign father show the largest proportion receiving their entire income from husband alone, and those of foreign birth the smallest. The families whose heads are foreign-born show a considerably larger proportion receiving incomes from both husband and boarders or lodgers and husband and children. Of the families whose heads are of the different foreign-born race groups those whose heads are Hebrews show the largest proportion receiving the entire income from husband and those the heads of which are Slovak the smallest. The families the heads of which are Polish show the largest proportion receiving incomes from husband and boarders or lodgers and from husband and wife and those the heads of which are French Canadian show the largest proportion receiving incomes from husband and children.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The relative importance of the different sources of incomes of the families studied in the community may be seen from the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of total yearly income from the husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources:

TABLE 69.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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In 714 families reporting the larger proportion of the family income, or 66.3 per cent, is derived from earnings of the husband, 22.9 per cent from contributions of children, while the payments of boarders or lodgers, earnings of wife, and other sources are less than 5 per cent in each instance. Comparing the different nativity groups it is seen that the families whose heads are native-born of native father show the largest proportion of the family income from earnings of husband and those the heads of which are foreign-born the smallest, and those families the heads of which are foreign-born show the largest proportions of incomes from the contributions of children, earnings of wife, and other specified sources. Of the families the heads of which are of the different foreign-born races those whose heads are Hebrews report the largest proportion of income from earnings of husband and those the heads of which are Irish the smallest. The families the heads of which are Irish show the largest proportion of income from contributions of children and those the heads of which are Polish the largest from other specified sources.

CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Regularity of employment-The immigrant and organized labor-[Text Tables 71 and 72 and General Table 70].

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

The regularity of the work offered in the community, as well as the relative industriousness of the members of the several races of wage-earners, is indicated in the table which immediately follows. It shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over in the households studied who were employed away from home. By the term "past year" is meant the twelve months immediately preceding the collection of the data.

TABLE 70.-Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

{This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Only 1 per cent of the 994 males included in the foregoing table worked less than three months during the past year, and only 45.1 per cent worked twelve months-83.6 per cent working nine months or over and 96.4 per cent six months or over. Almost 75 per cent of the persons native-born of native father and over 56 per cent of those native-born of foreign father, as compared with 37.6 per cent of the foreign-born, worked the entire past year. All of the All of the persons native-born of native father and 97.4 per cent of the native-born of foreign father, and 95.5 per cent of the foreign-born, worked six

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