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Practically all of the oil paint used is imported in a ready-mixed state,

OTHER MARKET FACTORS

Quality. The demand is for the better grades, and quality rather than price always prevails. The dampness and general humidity throughout most of the year makes it necessary to secure high-grade materials for both interior and exterior use.

Packing.—The small-sized container for both paints and varnishes is convenient for individual sales and is a good sales factor in Bermudian trade. Tins range in size from 12 to 56 pounds, as follows: 12, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 28, and 56 pounds, the most popular being from 1 to 7 pounds.

Methods of distribution.-Practically all of the merchants in Bermuda are retailers, except one or two who do a little wholesale trade with the islands of St. George, Somerset, etc. These retailers do their own importing, and, on account of the accessibility of the New York market, it is not necessary to carry large stocks. Paints are sold through hardware stores and dealers in builders' supplies.

Terms.-The credit terms extended to the Bermuda retailer are similar to those granted to American retail merchants, such as 30, 60, 90, or 120 days net, with a cash discount for prompt payment.

Advertising.The limited market would probably not justify an extensive advertising campaign, but several manufacturers have built up a fair amount of trade through advertising. The advertiser in Bermuda has the choice of only two papers with a small circulation. Billboard advertising is not permitted.

Tariff:—Paints, pigments, and varnishes are subject to an import duty of 10 per cent ad valorem, with a surtax of 10 per cent, which is the equivalent of a flat rate of 11 per cent ad valorem.

Trade-mark registration.-Application for the registration of trade-marks should be made through the office of the Registrar General, Hamilton.

UNITED STATES PARTICIPATION

Exports of paint, pigments, and varnish from the United States to Bermuda increased from $4,671 in 1913 to $15,876 in 1923. Although the paint trade of the island group is not large in the aggregate, nevertheless it represents a high paint-purchasing power per capita in comparison with the trade of some of the West Indies proper. For example, the value of American exports to Haiti, a country of almost one hundred times the population of the Bermudas, was less than three times as great.

The following table shows the American exports of paint to Bermuda during 1913 and recent years. Most of the trade is in paints prepared for immediate use or materials that require merely simple mixing

EXPORTS OF PAINTS, PIGMENTS, AND VARNISHES FROM THE UNITED STATES TO

BERMUDA

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The convenience of the New York market, with regular and frequent sailings, is a factor that favors the purchase of American goods.

The postwar trade has increased considerably, but the United States maintains its position as a supplier of about one-half of the total demand and the principal source for varnish. The remainder of the trade is divided between England and Canada. England ranks second as a supplier, but Canadian competition in recent years has lowered the British share of the trade and increased Canada's participation from 9 per cent in 1913 to 16 per cent in 1922. Two British manufacturers are represented, and a line of Canadian mixed paint is carried by several merchants.

BARBADOS

The island of Barbados is a British possession lying to the east of the Windward Islands, about 97 miles east of St. Vincent. The area is approximately 166 square miles; the population about 156,000, chiefly blacks. There are some Europeans, most of them English. The language is English. The capital of the island and the chief commercial center is Bridgetown, population 20,000. Bridgetown is the port of call for many steamers, especially those southbound, and a considerable volume of general trade is carried on. There is some wholesale business, but in the main the trade is of a retail character. The chief exports are sugar, cotton, and fruits.

MARKET FOR PAINTS, PIGMENTS AND VARNISHES Paints are not manufactured in Barbados, and therefore all that are used there are imported from foreign countries, chiefly England, United States, and Canada.

Complete statistics showing imports of paints and varnishes into Barbados for recent years are not available. The following table shows the imports for 1913 and 1920:

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Although detailed statistics are not available for 1922 and 1923 preliminary reports indicate that the amount of paint imported during 1922 was 279,641 pounds, which increased to 334,409 pounds in 1923. Imports of polishes and varnishes during 1922 were 1,376 gallons and also show an increase in 1923, in which year 1,437 gallons were brought into the colony.

TYPE OF PAINT REQUIRED

Oil paints are used only for woodwork in Barbados and as there are very few frame houses the demand is small. Most of the interiors are finished with a local lime wash or a popular English distemper, but some oil paints are also used. These consist of a lead or zinc base, mixed with oil and tinted by the local painters on the job. These artisans report that ready-mixed paints do not give the same results in Barbados as in the United States. Very little wall paper is used owing to the fact that it fades rapidly. Dark, medium, and light stone are the colors in greatest demand for exteriors, white for interiors, and red for roofs

. The market for house specialty varnishes is very small, and is chiefly for clear color. There is no market for baking varnish and baking enamels. Most of the paint imported is for use on houses, but Bridgetown is a convenient port of call for ships and there is a sale for marine paints.

OTHER MARKET FACTORS

Quality. The tropical climate of Barbados causes paints to fade rapidly, particularly green. A portion of the demand is for highgrade merchandise, but incomes are very small, and it would be difficult to induce most buyers to purchase high-priced materials, even though it might be evident that high-quality goods outlast less expensive.

Packing.The unit of measure in use in the exporting country is accepted in Barbados. Thus, British paints are sold by the hundredweight of 112 pounds and varnish by the imperial gallon. Canadian paint is usually sold on the same basis, but the unit of measure for varnish is the wine gallon. United States suppliers quote on a basis of a hundredweight of 100 pounds for paint and the wine gallon for varnish.

The containers as used in the United States, that is, round cans for prepared paints and oblong for varnish, are preferred by the local merchants.

Methods of distribution.--Paints and varnish are handled in Barbados by hardware and lumber dealers. An agency, if desired, should be established in Bridgetown which is the strategical point for doing business, as the principal importers are located there. Some exporters expect the representative in Bridgetown to canvass the Windward Islands of St. Vincent, St. Lucia, and Grenada, although these more often fall to the lot of the representative at Port of Spain, Trindad, who may likewise be expected to take care of Barbados.

Orders from Barbados are, in general, not very large; the buyers prefer to make frequent importations in preference to carrying stocks for a long period. The custom of buying far in advance does not prevail.

Terms.--The usual terms of credit are 30-days' draft against acceptance, although some shippers grant up to 90 days.

Advertising.– The house painter is generally employed in Barbados. The support of these artisans could probably be obtained by advertising through the medium of the local newspapers and by the distribution among them of literature pertaining to the qualities and uses of American paints.

Tariff.—There is no discrimination against American paints except that they are under a tariff handicap in Barbados. According to item 72 of the Barbados custom's tariff act, the duty on British and Canadian paints and colors is 60 cents per 100 pounds, and on American $1.20 per 100 pounds. The duty on British polishes and varnishes is 24 cents per 100 pounds and 48 cents per 100 pounds on American polishes and varnishes.

UNITED STATES PARTICIPATION

American Consul John J. C. Watson, Barbados, recently estimated that 80 per cent of the paint trade of Barbados has been handled by English manufacturers since the preferential tariff went into effect in 1921. The following table, prepared from United States Department of Commerce statistics, shows that practically all of the small volume of paints shipped' by firms in the United States consisted of ready mixed paints:

EXPORTS OF PAINTS, PIGMENTS, AND VARNISHES FROM THE UNITED STATES TO

BARBADOS

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American manufacturers supplied a large share of the market requirements during the years 1918 to 1920, and their products proved satisfactory. Increased competition from England and Canada in recent years, aided by tariff protection, has reduced American participation to a small amount. American exporters must exert every effort to serve and hold their present connections but the limited demands of the market do not warrant an extensive sales program.

BRITISH WINDWARD AND LEEWARD ISLANDS

The three islands, Grenada, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia, with the chain of smaller islands and islets scattered between St. Vincent and Grenada, constitute the Windward group, of which Grenada is the southernmost island. It lies 90 nautical miles north of Trinidad and 65 nautical miles southwest of St. Vincent. The area is 120 square miles with a population of 71,500.

Although one of the smaller West Indies, Grenada is of importance. Tropical products are the chief sources of wealth. Most of the trade of St. George, the principal city, is with the retailers

. St. Vincent lies about 97 nautical miles west of Barbados and about 30 miles southwest of St. Lucia. The area is 140 square miles with a population of about 50,000. There is a fair volume of general trade, and Kingstown is the important commercial city.

The island of St. Lucia is one of the more important islands in the West Indies, owing to the fact that there is an excellent harbor with splendid docking facilities. It is the most northerly of the Windward group, about 25 nautical miles south of Martinique and 30 miles northeast of St. Vincent. The area is about 238 square

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