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American manufacturers to compete with the well-known German and French brands.
The average Austrian is very fond of imported products and shows no prejudice against containers or labels that are not printed in German. In fact, foreign products are preferred. Even Austrian manufacturers, in order to encourage their own sales, will imitate French products in labeling, packing, or selecting a container. Very often labels are in English. There is no standardization in sizes of containers, and usually packages or bottles are small for convenience sake. The buying power of the average Austrian is limited, and it is his psychology to buy in small quantities. The package, bottle. or label, above all things, should be neat, attractive, and artistic to comply with the Austrian taste.
Standard American toilet preparations would encounter no obstacles in complying with the Austrian drug legislation, as the laws are considered lenient. There is, however, a law prohibiting the use of lead tube containers for tooth paste, and the use of lead in toilet and face powders is forbidden. In order to protect one's manufactures, the products and patents should be registered at the Austrian patent office and trade-marks and designs at the Vienna Chamber of Commerce.
ADVERTISING Advertising of toilet preparations in Austria is not as extensive as in the United States and in order to effectively introduce American goods it will be necessary to provide the agent with a sufficient amount of advertising material and funds. Newspaper advertising is effective, although expensive if correctly followed up. Hence. advertising in the form of street-car signs, motion-picture notices, store displays, billboards, and the distribution of free samples at the Vienna Sample Fair are recommended. The French perfumes and cosmetics are seldom advertised, owing to their commanding prestige. and the German products have made large inroads by extensive advertising campaigns.
FOREIGN TRADE STATISTICS
As the following official Austrian foreign trade statistic
will show, France is the chief source of toilet preparations, and even in quantity French merchandise exceeded that imported from Germany in the past year. In 1923 there were 330 metric quintals (1 quintal= 100 kilos) imported valued at $81,000; of this quantity over onehalf, or 190 quintals, was imported from France, 105 quintals from Germany, and 14 quintals from the United States. The per capita consumption of imported toilet preparations from the standpoint of weight has not changed much since the beginning of the war, for in 1913 the Austro-Hungarian Empire imported 2,622 quintals, or 50 quintals per million inhabitants, as against the same weight per million inhabitants in 1923.
Imports were abnormal at the close of the war and during the inflation period, as it was necessary for shopkeepers to stock up the shelves depleted during the war years.
IMPORTS OF PERFUMERY AND TOILET PREPARATIONS
The export of Austrian toilet preparations is declining, as shown in the following table. Shortly after the war, during the inflation period, the Austrian industry was in a flourishing state, exporting large quantities, chiefly to the newly formed Succession States which had been part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Now a nationalistic and protective spirit prevails in these neighboring countries, and consequently economic barriers have been erected, protecting their own newly founded industries, much to the detriment of Austrian manufacturers.
EXPORTS OF PERFUMERY AND TOILET PREPARATIONS
(Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1913 and the Republic of Austria in 1920 to 1923]
Metric Metric Metric Metric Metric quintals quintals quintals quintals quintals
8 130 559 305 165
110 8 7 168 297 83
1 267 329 75
31 267 933 465 226
35 26 515 905 232
182 1 9
There is no prejudice against American toilet preparations in Austria, and there is a ready market for several lines, although, as already stated, the French and German products offer keen competition, owing to their early introduction and cheaper prices. The Austrian at present is very conservative, and if he has the necessary purchasing price he will usually continue to insist on buying the French products. Nevertheless, the demand for and the sale of American toilet preparations is increasing in spite of all obstacles
. However, in order to sell American products in Austria it will be exceedingly difficult for American manufacturers to exact cash against documents, and liberal credit terms will have to be granted. Also, advertising literature, funds, and samples should be supplied to the agent. Only the best quality of American merchandise can be sold, and the lines for which there would be the greatest demand are shaving soap (sticks), tooth paste, talcum powder, creams, safety razors and blades, hygienic preparations, and specialties and novelties, such as powder compacts, manicure articles, and chiropodist specialties.
“Mud” preparations are as yet unknown on the Austrian market and there is a possibility of introducing this
W. T. Daugherty, Assistant Trade Commissioner
The United States seems to control the German market in some raw materials for toilet articles shipped in bulk and packed in this country. Petroleum jelly is the best instance. American petroleum jelly, constituting about 90 per cent of Germany's total consumption, is the imported raw material on which is based a rather thriving industry.
Domestic production of toilet articles is widely distributed in Germany. The industry is well developed and a prolific producer. Of the raw materials entering these preparations, categorically speaking, the essential oils and petroleum jelly are imported, while the alkali binders are produced at home, except that some soda ash is imported, chiefly from England and France.
The leading manufacturers of toilet articles, and these may be considered together without specifying single items, include the following, whose trade names are the most highly advertised in this market:
Ferdinand Mühlens, Cologne (4711 preparations) ; Johanna Maria Farina, Cologne, with the famous “ Eau de Cologne" recipe which has been handed down in one family for centuries; Doctor Albersheim, Frankfort-on-the-Main (“Khasana” preparations); Lehmann & Bohne, Berlin ("Lebona" preparations); P. Beiersdorf & Co., Hamburg (“Pebeco preparations); Pearson & Co., Hamburg ("Albin "); Schimmel & Co., Leipzig; Gustav Lohse, Berlin; Max Schwarzlose, Berlin; and Juenger & Gebhart, Berlin,
Some toilet preparations are turned out from coal tar, even lig. nite tar, yielding cheap soaps. These preparations were more promi. nent during the war, but they have given way in great measure to better goods now that restrictions imposed by the war are removed
German toilet preparations go into trade, as is the case in America, from the manufacturer to the jobber or the retailers. The jobber's discount is from 15 to 20 per cent for handling.
Observers of the local market state that Germany will increase consumption of toilet preparations. The reason given is that women, the largest users of toilet preparations, are much more inclined to their use than 10 years ago. This seems more or less reasonable, and even the German "hausfrau” now feels the urge of the wellknown“ new freedom" and may appear in public slightly powdered, tinted, or even perfumed.
The selection of representatives by potential American exporters, accepting that there is a future market for some American toilet articles at least, is a matter of choice. The head office, say, in Berlin, may assign its own representatives on commission, and its salesmen on salary, or vice versa.
It is the opinion of the local trade that the very best and most attractive containers possible be used for toilet preparations. They are essentially luxury articles which are sold according to the attractiveness of their container; this is psychologically the case, here and elsewhere where women are important consumers.
Retailers of toilet preparations on the German market are pharmacies, department stores, special prefumery stores, barber shops, beauty parlors, etc.
Advertising mediums, not radically different from the usual ones in the United States, are also used in Germany. Women's papers, or " home papers," are excellent carriers of such advertisements.
There are fewer restrictions against the ingredients entering German toilet articles than is the case in America. Alcohol can be used in German toilet preparations, for instance, and there is no restriction against the use of saccharin. This does not mean, of course, that ingredients capable of exerting positively injurious effects can be used here any more than elsewhere.
The registration of trade-marks and copyrights is, of course, important and is observed here as in the United States.
Import duties are not particularly high, except in the case of perfumed toilet preparations. Petroleum jelly pays, for instance, 12 marks per 100 kilograms; perfumed articles would doubtless have to pay ten times as much.
The following tables of Germany's foreign trade in powder, beautifyiny greases, tooth paste, tooth soaps, perfumery, etc., are taken from tables in the "Monatliche Nachweiss." They are the only figures given in this connection, but they are comprehensive enough to indicate Germany's position on the world market, which is that essentially of an exporter and therefore a competitor of the United States.
It is observed that in 1922 Germany had doubled its pre-war exports of these goods, while lesser exports in 1923, though well above the pre-war level, may be accounted for by the general depression brought about by the Ruhr occupation in that year. On the other hand, Germany's imports are negligible.
As far as past experience is viewed, Germany has been exporting to the United States instead of importing from our country. Before the war there were American toilet preparations on the German market, and their good name has been echoed down to the present time.
What profits are being made by American enterprise at the present time is because some American manufacturers have set up plants in Germany for packing. As to the advisability of erecting plants in Germany for packing purposes, this depends upon what articles come into question. If they are articles prepared from raw materials which Germany has not available, their import is of course easier. Then, of course, the economic future of Germany is in question. Present producing costs here are higher than in the United States, but it is possible that with time, when economic conditions are more settled, these will decline.
WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1995