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LEADING MARKETS FOR UNITED STATES FOODSTUFFS The preceding sections have dealt with the exports of foodstuffs by classes of commodities. It will be of value now to examine the tendency in the foodstuffs trade as regards destinations, or markets. Below are shown the exports of foodstuffs to the 15 leading markets. These countries take 90 per cent of the foodstuffs exported from the United States.

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This table divides foodstuffs into animal and vegetable products and shows the amounts going to the principal countries during the past two years. Only Germany, Cuba, and Mexico consistently take more animal products (such as meats and animal fats and oils) than vegetable products (such as cereals; fruits, and vegetables). In spite of the fact that canned milk is an important item in the trade with China and Japan, these countries take a very small percentage of food products of animal origin.

The percentage change in the foodstuffs exports to the various markets is also shown in the preceding table. The variations are fairly accurately presented in every case except that of Canada. A large part of the reported increase in the exports of foodstuffs to that country was made by wheat and rye which were not consumed within the country but were on the way to Europe. The actual Canadian importation from the United States in 1924 of foodstuffs for consumption was probably very little, if any, larger than in 1923.

The following table shows the percentage, by value, of the tota. foodstuffs exports going to the 15 leading markets: PER CENT OF TOTAL VALUE OF UNITED States Foodstuffs EXPORTED :)

LEADING MARKETS

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The European countries included in this table take over 95 per cent of the direct exports of foodstuffs from the United States Europe. By no means all of the total foodstuffs reported as exported to these countries is actually consumed therein. "A certain part u? the exports reported as going to Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium, for example, are subsequently transshipped. Czechoslo vakia is shown as a very small market for American foodstuffs, far as the export statistics are concerned, but considerable amounts of these products find their way into that country through German Furthermore, it is very important in considering the proportion of foodstuffs exported to the various foreign markets to take into account the large transshipment trade through Canada. This facto: will be treated more in detail under the discussion of Canada. It is sufficient to point out here that, on the average, during the past three years not more than 60 per cent of the foodstuffs reported as going to Canada has been actually consumed within the country Practically all of the remaining 40 per cent goes to Europe. Since the transshipment trade was much smaller before the war, the percentage figures need no adjustment for the year 1912–13. In 1924, however, after allowance is made for shipments through Canada, i is estimated that Europe took 66 per cent of the total foodstuffs er. ported from the United States as compared with 70.5 per cent in 1912-13. North American countries, including Canada, Mexico, and Cuba, took 17 per cent last year, against 13.4 per cent in 1912-13 On the adjusted basis, Canada alone took 7 per cent of the total in 1912-13 and 9 per cent in 1924. The oriental countries-Chini, Japan, and the Philippine Islands—took 4.7 per cent in 1924. &s compared with 3.4 per cent in 1912–13.

In the following pages each of the 15 leading markets for foodstuffs is considered separately and the significant features of the trade with each are pointed out.

UNITED KINGDOM

The United Kingdom is not only the largest market for the United States foodstuffs as a whole, but it is also the largest market fo: most of the individual items. The principal foodstuffs exported from the United States to the United Kingdom during 1923 and 1924 are shown in the table immediately following:

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The United Kingdom is the largest market for the world's surplus meat products. The States is the principal of hams

, , , British market with bacon. Less hams and bacon were exported to the United Kingdom from the United States in 1924 than in 1923, but the exports of lard increased. Pork loins and sausage casings are the only other important meat items exported to the United Kingdom.

The United Kingdom is normally the best market for wheat grain from the United States. In recent years the exports to Canada have been recorded as larger, but since practically all of the wheat exported to Canada is for reshipment, the British Isles may be considered our largest market for this cereal. The United Kindgom is also the most important market for wheat flour, although in 1924 the Netherlands took a larger amount. Larger quantities of barley and corn are shipped to the United Kingdom than to any other country. As in the case of wheat, a larger amount of corn is reported as going to Canada than to the United Kingdom, but this is largely transshipment. Much of the corn shipped through Canada goes in the summer, when a cooler route is desirable.

Canned fruit makes up a very important item in the exports to the United Kingdom. In 1924 the exports of canned fruit to that market amounted to 176,724,000 pounds, or 78 per cent of the total exports from the United States. The principal items in this trade, and the quantity of each, were as follows: Pears, 52,848,477 pounds; peaches, 52,622,141 pounds; and apricots, 31,770,461 pounds.

The United Kingdom is also ordinarily the largest market for dried fruit, although it was surpassed in this respect by Germany in 1924. Prunes and raisins are the leading dried fruits exported to the British Isles.

The United Kingdom is the largest market for apples, taking in 1924, 62 per cent of the boxed apples and 83 per cent of the barreled

apples exported from the United States. The total value of apples exported to the United Kingdom in 1924 was $16,958,000, as compared with $11,995,000 in 1923.

The exports of canned meat find their largest market in the United Kingdom. The principal items in this trade are canned sausage and canned pork products. Soups, beans, and asparagus are preferred in the canned-vegetable group.

Canned salmon is an important item in the canned-food trace with the United Kingdom. Exports in 1924 amounted to 37,185,000 pounds valued at $5,962.000.

CANADA

Although, on the basis of the United States exports statistics

, Canada has become the second largest market for American foodstuffs, such is not actually the case. The large transshipment trade has already been referred to. The extent of the transshipments in the principal products entering into the foodstuffs trade with Canadá is shown in the following table:

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Since the United States export statistics are for calendar years and the Canadian import figures are for fiscal years they will not agree exactly, even for those products which are not reshipped to an extent.' On the other hand, a three-year average is given in both cases, so that the difference on account of the years should not be great. The outstanding discrepancies are shown by wheat and rye. During the calendar years 1921-1923 the United States reported an average of 26,752,000 bushels of wheat and 8,770,000 bushels of rye as going to Canada, whereas Canada showed imports for consumption during the fiscal years 1922–1924 of an average of only 168,000 bushels of wheat and 2,000 bushels of rye. Only about a third of the corn reported as going to Canada and less than a fourth of the bacon, ham, and shoulders is for consumption; but most of the lard, eggs, and dried fruit exported to Canada is consumed in the country.

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Most of the grain and meats is for transhipment to Europe.
* Includes all fresh fruit except citrus fruits, pineapples, and apples.

* Exports of barreled apples amounted to 35,936 barrels valued at $137,103 in 1924, as compared with 42,190 barrels at $172,251 in 1923.

Citrus fruits make up the leading group of foodstuffs exported to Canada for consumption within the country. Oranges make up 90 per cent of these shipments. The exports of oranges to Canada amounted to 2,267,018 boxes, valued at $7,550,000, in 1924. Apples and other fresh fruit such as pears, grapes, peaches, and berries, are the next most important products exported to Canada. Boxed apples predominate in the apple trade.

Canada is the largest market for canned vegetables from the United States. The Canadian production of vegetables is limited, and consequently the per capital demand for canned vegetables is large. Soups, corn, and beans are the principal products in this trade. The exports of canned fruit are smaller than those of vegetables. The chief items of canned fruit sent to Canada are pineapples and peaches.

GERMANY

Germany is, in reality, the second largest market for American foodstuffs. Some allowance must be made for reshipment, as Hamburg and Bremen are important transshipping ports, and a considerable amount of foodstuffs exported to these points finds its way eventually to Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and even as far as the Balkans.

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