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thick by the cell method, and 4 feet long, 2 feet 6 inches wide, 10.5 inches thic by the can. Raw water, 192 cells or 210 cans, both air and mechanical agita tion; compression. Machinery manufactured by the Lightfoot Refrigeration Co. (Ltd.), London, and the Haslam Foundry & Engineering Co. (Ltd.), Lou don. Large extensions are under way and others are contemplated.

The Provincial Dairies (Ltd.), 13 Centenary Street, Leeds: Production ca pacity, 2,240 pounds per 24 hours. Blocks, 2 feet 6 inches by 2 feet by! inches. When working at full capacity compressor uses 40 cans of raw wate with mechanical agitation. Plant of American make.

The name of the proprietor of a new plant reported as about t be built in Leeds is not available. Another is being erected by Isaa Stephenson, butcher, Tong Road, Leeds, the machinery coming fron Lister & Co., Perseverance Iron Works, Brighouse, Leeds.

COLD-STORAGE ESTABLISHMENTS

The cold-storage plant of the Leeds Consumers Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.) handles meat imported from New Zealand, Australia and South America, some_Australian eggs, and game and fish from the district surrounding Leeds. The company does not distributi any products, merely storing them for consumers, who transport them from the railway in carts, motor trucks, or similar convey ances. There are some facilities for increased business, and no exten sions are planned. The equipment was supplied by an American firm. Capacity, 114,000 cubic feet, 16° to 18° F.; lowest tempera. ture, 16° F.

The Yorkshire Pure Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.) handles chiefly meat (beef and lamb) and bacon from the British colonies and South America. Its location close to the station makes motor transporta tion desirable for the distribution of meat imported by the com pany, but consumers use their own vehicles for the cartage from the railway to the stores of the meat they import themselves. Present facilities are ample for additional business, and no extensions in the cold-storage department are considered. The Lightfoot Refrigera. tion Co. (Ltd.), London, and the Haslam Foundry & Engineering Co. (Ltd.), London, supplied the machinery. Capacity, 110,000 cubic feet at 15° F. and 30,000 at 32° F.; lowest temperature, 15° F

An additional cold-storage warehouse is in process of erection in Leeds. Particulars of ownership are not available.

LIVERPOOL DISTRICT

Consul General Horace Lee Washington, June 29 and July 11

ICE-MAKING PLANTS In the Liverpool district the use of ice by both the general public and the various trades has increased within the past few years although the average householder as yet does not regard it as a necessity. Large stocks of perishables are not kept, and there is no prejudice against milk and cream preserved chemically. Iced drinks in private homes are not common. In the past the largest consumer of ice was the fishing industry and the resultant wholesale and retail trade. Firms Manufacturing Ice.

All the known ice-making firms of this district are British. Their description follows:

The Union Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Williamson Square, and also Canada Dock, and Riverside, Liverpool : Wholesale and retail. Total daily output, s0 to 100 tons; capacity about 25 per cent more. At Williamson Square both the Sidley system and the can process (brine) are used ; at Canada Dock, the pluperfect, and at Riverside the can-ice method with brine circulation, Regulated commercial standard size of block, 5 feet by 3 feet 6 inches by 10 inches, weighing approximately 500 to 600 pounds. Water, supplied by the city corporation mains, is very clear and does not require distilling. Number of cans varies, usually from 5 to 30, if the ice is made in cans, otherwise 30-ton tanks. The pluperfect and can-ice systems use air agitation, while the Sibley has mechanically worked paddles fitted in the space under the actual icemaking part of the tank. Ammonia compression. The Williamson Square plant of the company is equipped with Lightfoot machinery and Sidley and Lightfoot tanks (old conditions); the Canada Dock uses the same machines, but Pluperfect tanks; and the Riverside has Haslam machines, manufactured by the Haslam Engineers and Foundry Co., Derby, England, and reconstructed Lightfoot tanks.

The Patent Ice Co., Liverpool : Can make 90 tons daily. Pluperfect system, consisting of Lightfoot and Haslam machines with Pluperfect tanks. Other details of this and the following companies are the same as those given for the Union Cold Storage Co.

The Tranmere Dairy Co., Birkenhead, Cheshire: Capacity, 20 tons daily. Can-ice system, with brine circulation. Machine and tanks manufactured by the Peter Brotherhood Co., Peterborough, and are 2 years old.

The Birkenhead Ice Co., Birkenhead, Cheshire: Daily output, 30 tons. Equipped with an old Haslam machine, and uses the Empire direct-expansion cells.

The Chester Ice and Cold Storage Co.: Daily output, 18 tons. Pluperfect tanks; Lightfoot and Brotherhood machinery.

The Blackburn Crystal Ice Co. (Ltd.)., Southport, Warrington, and Blackpool, Lancashire: Daily capacity of each of three plants, 40 tons. Makes can ice with brine circulation. Lightfoot machines and tanks, in good condition. The Blackpool plant is the most important, as it supplies ice direct to the fishing boats as they come up or go out of the river at Fleetwood. It owns the only available space on the river banks, and has no transportation problems except for local town delivery. Immediate Extensions Not Probable.

Although the demand for ice in the Liverpool district is expanding each year, no ice-making firm is worked to capacity, and it is not expected that any more plants will be built in the immediate future. Butchers, proprietors of fish stores, and dairymen, who use considerable ice in their chill rooms, recently have appeared to be more interested in small power machines.

COLD-STORAGE ESTABLISHMENTS

Cold-storage plants in Liverpool have a total capacity of more than 8,535,900 cubic feet. The principal products handled are mutton, lamb, beef, bacon, eggs, fish, and provisions. The general practice is not to limit a class of goods to particular compartments but to use them for all products, as occasion requires, and to change the temperature to meet varying conditions from 15.16° F. for freezing the goods to 26.28° F. for bacon, and to still higher for fruits, eggs, and other perishable commodities. Most of these stores also manufacture ice for their own use and for sale.

The Union Cold Storage Co., general offices, 19 and 20 Produce Exchange Building, Victoria Street, Liverpool, controls the largest individual cold store in Europe. Its five establishments distributed over the city of Liverpool have capacities as follows: Alexandria Dock, 2,773,000 cubic feet; Canada Dock, 708,000; Albert Dock,

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557,000; Williamson Square, 546,000; Banastre Street, 485,000; and Eastman's Store, Derby Road, 429,000; or a total of 5,498,000. There is no fixed cubic-foot capacity for various degrees of temperatures in any of the stores, but, as mentioned above, the chambers and compartments are constructed for easy adjustment to the degree of cold desired. The storage space is suitable for all kinds of products. Ammonia-compression system is used, with insulation of silicate cotton, cork, or charcoal. Most of the machinery is of British manufacture.

At the company's plant at Alexandria Dock imported goods are transferred from the importing vessel, when berthed in the adjacent dock, by electric conveyer and also by insulated lighters. At Albert Dock the load can be moved by lighter, and, if there is sufficient water for the draft of steamers, they can discharge directly into the cold store, provided the arrangement suits all consignees. Insulated vans carry the mutton and lamb, but beef is covered with special sheets and carted in open wagons, unless forbidden by the insurance policy covering the cargo. In all cases the meat is transferred direct from the steamer's side into the insulated vans or open carts and removed to the cold stores as soon as each load is completed. Bacon (unless the insurance policy prohibits), eggs, fish, and similar products are discharged into the dock quay and transported by open carts to the railway station or cold stores. Frozen fish is usually put directly on the carts and conveyed immediately, but bacon and eggs very often are left for two or three days on the quay if the goods are not sold.

The Union Cold Storage Co. owns all of the share capital in the Blackfriers Lighterage & Cartage Co., the Pure Ice Co., the International Export Co., Shanghai Ice & Cold Storage Co., Union Cartage Co., Mersey Pure Ice & Cold Storage Co., and the Blue Star Line, as well as the shares of the British & Argentine Meat Co., purchased some time ago, and constituting one of the biggest deals of its kind. (See also Union Co. under London, Hull, and Glasgow.) Other Liverpool Cold-Storage Establishments.

Important details for the other leading cold-storage establishments of the Liverpool district are compiled in the following summary:

The Lancashire Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Brunswick Place, Regent Road, Liverpool: Opened in 1907; extended during the war. Previous to the building of the Alexandria Dock store this was one of the largest establishments of its kind in the city. Frozen and chilled meat, bacon, and similar products stored. Ammonia compression ; silicate-cotton insulation. Capacity, 615,000 cubic feet.

The Bootle Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.): Established at Millers Bridge, Bootle, in 1898 and at Canada and Sandon Docks in 1910. Stores all classes of goods at varying temperatures. Ammonia compression; silicate-cotton insulation. Millers Bridge plant has a capacity of 181,400 cubic feet and Canada and Sandon Docks, 335,500.

The Imperial Cold Stores, Victoria Street, Liverpool : Opened in 1904. Does a general business but has only dry-air insulation. Packing of granulated cork. Capacity, 320,000 cubic feet.

The British & Argentine Meat Co. (Ltd.), Bramley Moore Dock, Liverpool: Frozen and chilled meats and general perishable goods stored. Ammoniacompression method of cooling, with charcoal insulation. Capacity, 310,000 cubic feet.

The Northwestern Cooperative Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Redfern Street, Bankhall

, Liverpool: Opened in 1899. Ammonia-compression system. Capacity, 320,000 cubic feet.

The Trent Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Sandhills Lane; Established in 1906.

Capacity, 200,000 cubic feet.

Ruddin's Central Cold Stores, Hood Street, and the Sansinena Meat Co. (Ltd.): Both were opened shortly before 1898. Ammonia compression; flake charcoal for insulation. The Sansinena Co. also uses Willesden paper. All classes of meat, dairy produce, fish, and provisions are stored. Ruddin's capacity, 160,000 cubic feet, and Sansinena's, 148,000.

Victoria Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.) and Armour & Co. (Ltd.): Both have smaller buildings than those previously mentioned and apparently are used more for temporary storage. Victoria capacity, 135,000 cubic feet, and Armour, 110,000.

Canadian Pacific Steamship Co. (Ltd.) and Cumberland Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.): Next to the recently completed Alexandria Dock warehouse these stores are the newest, both dating from about 1908. They employ Co, brine circulation with silicate cotton for insulation. Canadian Pacific capacity, 150,000 cubic feet, and Cumberland, 53,000. Present Capacity Sufficient–Suppliers of Equipment.

There is considerable unusued space in the Alexandria Dock store, which was built at a time when a vast capacity was required for war purposes. Other plants are also reported to have more space than at present is needed.

The Liverpool Refrigeration Co. is the only Liverpool firm of manufacturers and agents for refrigerating equipment, and do a very extensive ship-refrigeration business. Within recent years the company has equipped two or three fleets of from 10 to 15 ships each, aside from many individual vessels. The only other firms patronized by this district are concerns having offices solely in London.

LONDON DISTRICT Vice Consul Howard Donovan and Consul Eliot B. Coulter, June 14 and August 25, 1923

ICE-MAKING PLANTS Climate determines ice making in London. During the cool summer of 1922 there was a surplus of ice; in the warm weather of 1923 a shortage. The total maximum output per 24 hours of London ice plants is estimated at about 2,000 short tons. The business, however, could be greatly expanded by a campaign of educational advertising showing the value and use of ice in the protection of food and milk. The trade of the soda fountains, at least 1,000 of which were expected to be in operation in the British Isles by the end of 1923, is also an important consideration. First of all, howerer, the retail sales methods must be changed. At present ice is usually sold by fishmongers, who buy it primarily for their own use and only sell their surplus. If delivery can be secured at all, it is generally in the late afternoon, and, more often than not, the purchaser carries it home himself.

The majority of plants in the London district produce blocks 9 inches in thickness, 5 feet in height, and 448 pounds in weight. The can system, with air agitation and raw water, is used in most cases, and compression, with ammonia or carbon dioxide, is generally employed. Machinery is usually of British manufacture, although some from Denmark, Switzerland, and France has been installed. Sulzer Bros., a Swiss firm, and the Atlas Co., Danish, both with offices in London, are among the foreign firms selling in this market. Comparatively few American ice-making machines are in use in the British Isles.

The British manufacturers are strong, well organized, and also have advantages of low cost and proximity to the market. Americans, consequently, will find trade highly competitive. Agents, therefore, should be selected with extreme care and service stressed. Credit is an important consideration in selling to agents. Icemaking machinery apparently can not be sold cash against documents in England. Ice-Making Plants Listed.

The names, addresses, and ice-making capacity in short tons per 24 hours, of the plants in the London district are summarized as follows:

Daily capacity

in tons Bedford : Bedford Ice & Cold Storage Co., Midland Road.--

11 Brighton: Sussex Cold Storage & Markets (Ltd.), Russell Street.

22 Lightfoot Refrigeration Co. (Ltd.), Holland Road, Hove.-Canterbury: Canterbury Cold Storage & Pure Ice Works--

16 Croydon : Croydon & East Surrey District Consumers' Ice Co., Grafton Road

33 Eastbourne: Eastbourne Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Beach Road.

9 Lightfoot Refrigeration Co. (Ltd.), Waterworks Road.. Fleetwood : Fylde Ice & Cold Storage Co., Wyre Dock.

336 Folkstone: Folkstone & District Ice Co. (Ltd.), Beach Street--Great Yarmouth:

Great Yarmouth Ice Co. (Ltd.), South Denes.

Norfolk Cold Storage & Ice Manufacturing Co. (Ltd.), South Quay--- 33 Grimsby: Consolidated Steam Fishing & Ice Co. (Ltd.), Robinson Street

336 Grimsby Ice Co. (Ltd.), Fish Dock Road..

672 Standard Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Victor Street. Guildford: E. & B. Colebrook, High Street-

28 Hastings: Lightfoot Refrigeration Co. (Ltd.), Rock a' Nore Road. King's Lynn:

Andrew Donaldson

T. W. Hayes, Albert Street -Kingston-on-Thames : Kingston Pure Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), The Bittoms

29 London :

Imperial Cold Stores (Ltd.). South Tottenham----
London Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), 11 Billingsgate Market, E. ('. 3.
Lyons & Co. (Ltd.), Cadbury Hall, Kensington, W. 6..

112 R. Marks & Son, 8 Amberley Wharves, Paddington, W. 9----

22 North Pole Ice Co. (Ltd.), 43 Great Tower Street.

221 Pure Ice Co. (Ltd.), Allhallows Lane, Upper Thames Street, E. C. 4.Togni (Ltd.), Ship Lane, Hammersmith, W. 6.-

56 United Carlo Gatti Stevenson & Slater's (Ltd.), Caxton House, Westminster, S. W. 1.

392 Lowestoft: East Anglian Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), South Side

224 Maidstone : Goodwin Bros., 37 Lower Stone Street. Margate: Margate Pure Ice Co. (Ltd.), Bath Place--

13 Norwich : Norwich Pure Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), 8 Hughan Street

9 Norwich Ice Co., Old Barge Yard, King Street.Oxford: Oxford Cold Storage & Ice Co. (Ltd.), Hythe Bridge Street Ramsgate: The Ramsgate Pure Ice Co. (Ltd.), Chatham Street ------ 55 Reading: Reading Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Lynmouth Road.. 33 Rochdale: Rochdale Ice & Cold Stores (Ltd.), Exchange Street---- 4.5 Scarborough: Scarborough Pure Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Swan Hill Road.--

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