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THE

COLUMBIAN

CYCLOPEDIA

THIRTY-TWO VOLUMES

VOL, 28
SIND–STRICTURE

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS :

BUFFALO, N. Y.
GARRETSON, COX & COMPANY

1897

Á D44416

HARVARD
UNIVERSITY

LIBRARY

· Copyright, 1892, 1895, 1897;

BY
GARRETSON COX & COMPANY.

SCHEME OF SOUND SYMBOLS

FOR THE PRONUNCIATION OF WORDS.

Note..) is the mark dividing words respelt phonetically into syllables; (1, the accent indicating on which syllable or syllables thé accent or stress of the voice is to be placed.

Bound-gym-
bols em- Representing the Sounds as a

Words respelt with ployed in exemplified in the Words. Do

Sound-symbols and Marks Respelling,

for Pronunciation. ä...mate, fate, fail, aye.........māt, fāt, fāl, å. å...mat, fat..

:::.............måt, föt. &... far, calm, father ....... ...fâr, kâm, 'thér. i... care, fair ......

....cür, fär. au..fall, laud, law .... ....farol, laud, lar. è...mete, meat, feet, free ....... mēt, mēt, fet, fre. ě...met, bed.......

.mět, běd. é...ber, stir, heard, cur .......... her, stér, herd, kér. 7 ... pine, ply, height ...........pin, pli, hit. t...pin, nymph, ability..........pin, nimf, å-bil'l-ti. 0...note, toll, soul..............nöt, töl, 8ől. 0...not, plot................... nöt, plot. 0...move, smooth.. .....môo, smoth, ö... Goethe (similar to e in her)...'téh. o..noun, bough, cow........... noun, bou, kord. oy..boy, boil...................boy, boyl. ū...pure, dew, few............. pūr, , . ů...bud, come, tough........... bůd, kům, tủf. ů...full, push, good.... ........fúl, půsh, gud Ü...French plume, Scotch guid..plüm, güd.

ch...chair, match............... chär, măch. ch... German buch, Heidelberg,

Scotch loch (guttural)......böch, hi'dėl-běrch, loch. g...game, go, gun..............gũm, , . J... Judge, gem, gin.............jūj, jěm, jin. k...king, cat, cot, cut........... king, kåt, kot, küt. &... .sit, scene, cell, city, cypress. .sit, sēn, sél, sit'i, si pria &...shun, ambition .............shăn, ám-bish'ún. th...thing, breath. .............thing, brěth. t...though, breathe.............thỏ, breth. 2... .Zeal, maze, muse............zēl, mūz, mūz. Eh... azure, vision................ázh'er, virk'ún.

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS WORK.

B

....

A, or adj....adjective A.B..........Bachelor of Arts abbr.... ...abbreviation, abbre

viated abl. or abla ablative Abp........ Archbishop abc .........about Acad....... Academy acc. or ac..accusative accorn..... accommodated, ac.

commodation act.........active A.D.........in the year of our

Lord (Anno Dom.

ini) Adjt ...... Adjutant Adm ... ...Admiral adv. or ad..adverb A. F.... ....Anglo-French Ag......... Silver (Argentum) agri........agriculture A. L........Anglo-Latin Al.......... Aluminium Ale ....... Alabama Alb........ Albanian alg.........algebra A.M.........before noon (anto

meridiem] A.M. ...... Master of Arts Am......... Amos Amer....... America, anat.......anatorny, anatomical anc.........ancient, anciently AX, X.. ....in the year of the

world (Anno Mun

di) anon....... Anonymous antiq.......antiquity, antiqui

ties aor ........aorist, -ic app.........appendix appar......apparently Apr........ April Ar.........Arabic arch .......architecture archæol....archæology arith .......arithmetic Ark.... ....Arkansas art..........article artil....... artillery AS.........Anglo Saxop As......... Arsenic Assoc...... Association asst........assistant astrol.....astrology astron... ..astronomy attrib......attributive atty .......attorney at. wt......atomic weight Au......... Gold Aurum

c.......in the year of the

building of the city (Rome) Annourbis

conditæ Ang........August aug........augmentative Aust.......Austrian A. V........au horized version

(of Bible, 1611) avoir....... avoirdupois

Boron B...........Britannic b...........born Ba ......... Barium Bart........Baronet Bav........ Bavarian bl.; bbl....barrel; barrels B.C.........before Christ B.C.L. ... ...Bachelor of Civil

Law B.D..... ... Bachelor of Divinity bef ......... before Belg........Belgio Beng .... Bengali Bi.......... Bismuth biog........ biography, biograpb

ical biol........, biology B.L......... Bachelor of LAWS Bohem..... Bohemian bot..........botany, botanical Bp

.Bishop Br..........Bromine Braz ......Brazilian Bret........Breton

..Brigadier Brit. .British, Britannica bro ..brother Bulg...

Bulgarian bush ........busbel, buxhels O.... .Carbon

.....century Ca

..Calcium Cal.........California Camb...... Cambridge Can ..Canada Cant....... Canterbur cap.........capital Capt.......Captain Card... ....Cardinal carp........carpentry Cath.... ....Catholic caus........causative cav

..cavalry Cd.........Cadmium

... Cerium Celt........Celtic cent........central cf ..........compare ch or chh...church

AN, X.. ** sucient, analomical

Brig

Ce

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